• Salah M. M. Dagnoush City Graduate School, City University, Malaysia
  • Gamal S. A. Khalifa Faculty of Business, Women Campus, Higher Colleges of Technology, Al-Ain, UAE



The object of this study is to examine the relationship between effort expectancy and behavioral intention to use m-commerce in the Libyan context. It also aimed to determine the effect of effort expectancy on users’ behavioral intention. Using data from 310 respondents, the model of this study is supported by Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). The findings of the study suggested that there is a positive relationship between users’ effort expectancy and users’ behavioral intention. The findings also proposed that effort expectancy has a positive influence on user's behavioral intention to use m-commerce in the Libyan context. This study contributes to the body knowledge on m-commerce usage while also providing practical guidance for the Libyan government on how to improve user usage of m-commerce systems. Particularly, it confirms that the user's effort expectancy increases the user's behavioral intention in the Libyan context.


UTAUT, Libya, Effort Expectancy, Behavioral Intention


Download data is not yet available.


Abou-Shouk, M. A., & Khalifa, G. S. (2017). The influence of website quality dimensions on e-purchasing behaviour and e-loyalty: a comparative study of Egyptian travel agents and hotels. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34(5), 608-623.

Almarri, H., Ameen, A., Bhaumik, A., Alrajawy, I., & Khalifa, G. S. A. (2020b). The Mediating Effect of Facilitating Conditions on The Relationship Between Actual Usage of Online Social Networks (OSN) and User Satisfaction. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(06), 6389-6400.

Almarri, H., Ameen, A., Isaac, O., Khalifa, G. S. A., & Bhaumik, A. (2020a). Antecedents And Outcomes of Online Social Networks (OSN) Usage among Public Sector Employees. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(06), 6373-6388.

Almatrooshi, M., Khalifa, G. S., Alneadi, K. M., & El-Aidie, S. (2021). Organizational Performance: The Role of Leadership and Employee Innovative Behaviour. City University eJournal of Academic Research, 3(2), 103-116.

Alsharif, F. F. (2013). Investigating the Factors Affecting On-line Shopping Adoption in Saudi Arabia [Faculty of Technology, De Montfort University]. PhD Thesis.

Alsheikh, L. & Bojei, J. (2014). Determinants Affecting Customer's Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking in Saudi Arabia. International Arab Journal of e-Technology, 3(4), 210-219.‏

Atkinson, S., O'Hara, S., & Sturgeon, A. (Eds.). (2014). The Business Book: Big Ideas Simply Atkinson, S., O'Hara, S., & Sturgeon Explained. Dorling Kindersley Ltd.

Blaise, R. (2016). Mobile commerce competitive advantage: A quantitative study of variables that predict m-commerce purchase intentions. Journal of Internet Commerce, 17(1), 1-19.

Central Bank of Libya. (2018).

Chong, A. Y. L. (2013). Mobile commerce usage activities: The roles of demographic and motivation variables. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80(7), 1350-1359.

El-Aidie, S., Alseiari, H. A. S. M., & Khalifa, G. S. (2021). Tourism Sustainability and Competitiveness: A strategic platform. City University eJournal of Academic Research, 3(2), 1-19.

El-fitouri, M. O. (2015). ECommerce in Developing Countries: A Case Study on the Factors Affecting ECommerce Adoption in Libyan Companies. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 5(1), 102-115.

Elgahwash, F. O., Freeman, M. B., & Freeman, A. E. (2014, December 8-10). Improving online banking quality in developing nations: A Libyan case. 25th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, Auckland.

Fang, J., George, B., Shao, Y. & Wen, C. (2016). Affective and cognitive factors influencing repeat buying in e-commerce. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 19, 44-55.

Herero, A., Martin, H.S., Salmones, M.G. (2017). Explaining the adoption of social networks sites for sharing user-generated content. Computer Human Behavior, 71(C), 209-217.

Hossain, M. S., Sambasivan, M., Abuelhassan, A. E., & Khalifa, G. S. A. (2020). Factors influencing customer citizenship behaviour in the hospitality industry. Annals of Leisure Research, 1-24.

Khalifa, G. S. (2020). Assessing e-Service Quality Gap within Egyptian Hotels via WEBQUAL Technique. Artech Journal of Tourism Research and Hospitality, 1(1), 13-24.

Khalifa, G. S. A., Trung, N. V., & Hossain, M. S. (2021). Marketing Strategy and Implementation in the Covid-19 Era. A Literature Review. City University eJournal of Academic Research, 3(2), 47-61.

Khuja, M. S. A. A., & Mohamed, Z. B. (2016). Investigating the adoption of e-business technology by small and medium enterprises. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 2(2), 71-84.‏

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.‏

Lallmahomed, M. Z., Lallmahomed, N., Lallmahomed, G. M. (2017). Factors influencing the adoption of e-Government services in Mauritius. Telematics and Informatics, 34(4), 57-72.

Lei, C., Hossain, M. S., Mostafiz, M. I., & Khalifa, G. S. (2021). Factors determining employee career success in the Chinese hotel industry: A perspective of Job-Demand Resources theory. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 48, 301-311.

Liébana-Cabanillas, F., Marinković, V., & Kalinić, Z. (2017). A SEM-neural network approach for predicting antecedents of m-commerce acceptance. International Journal of Information Management, 37(2), 14-24.‏

Littler, D. & Melanthiou, D. (2006). Consumer perceptions of risk and uncertainty and the implications for behaviour towards innovative retail services: the case of internet banking. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 13(6), 431-443.‏

Luarn, P., & Lin, H. H. (2005). Toward an understanding of the behavioral intention to use mobile banking. Computers in human behavior, 21(6), 873-891.

Massoud, A. M. E., Akel, S. M., & Noor, K. (2017). Developing a model of E-business implementation for SMEs in Libya. International Journal of Applied Research 2017; 3(5), 681-685.

Mostafa, A. A. N., & Eneizan, B. (2018). Factors Affecting Acceptance of Mobile Banking in Developing Countries. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(1), 333-344.

Mrabet. A., (2017). Factors Affecting Electronic Commerce Acceptance and Usage in Libyan ICT Organizations. Liverpool John Moores University.

Nabhani, I. (2015). M-Commerce Adoption and Performance Improvement: Proposing a Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, III(4), 1-9.

Neuman, D. (2014). Qualitative research in educational communications and technology: A brief introduction to principles and procedures. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 26(1), 69-86.‏

Oliveira, T., Thomas, M., Baptista, G., Campos, F. (2016). Mobile payment: Understanding the determinants of customer adoption and intention to recommend the technology. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 404-414.

Omar, H. F. H., Saadan, K., & Hamad, O. S. (2013). Review: The Development of a Trustworthy Framework in E-Commerce Applications in Developing Countries. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, 2(6), 2086-2088.

Philippe. J., & Boudreau. H. (2017). 10 eCOMMERCE TRENDS FOR 2018. Absolunet.

Poorangi, M. M., Khin, E. W. S., Nikoonejad, S., & Kardevani, A. (2013). E-commerce adoption in Malaysian small and medium enterprises practitioner firms: A revisit on Rogers’ model. Anais Da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 85(4), 1593–1604.

Rodrigues, G., Sarabdeen, J., & Balasubramanian, S. (2016). Factors that influence consumer adoption of e-government services in the UAE: A UTAUT model perspective. Journal of Internet Commerce, 15(1), 18-39.‏

Sohn, Y. W. & Lee, S. (2017). Effects of grit on academic achievement and career-related attitudes of college students in Korea. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 45(10), 1629-1642.‏

Teo, T., Chan, C., & Parker, C. M. (2004). Factors Affecting e-commerce adoption by SMEs: A Meta-Analysis. ACIS 2004 Proceedings.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS quarterly, 27(3), 425-478.‏

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS quarterly, 36(1), 157-178.‏

Zarmpou, T., Saprikis, V., Markos, A., & Vlachopoulou, M. (2012). Modeling users’ acceptance of mobile services. Electronic Commerce Research, 12(2), 225-248.‏

Zhou, T., & Lu, Y. (2011). The Effects of Personality Traits on User Acceptance of Mobile Commerce. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 27(6), 545-561.

Zikmund, W. G., Carr, J. C. & Griffin, M. (2013). Business Research Methods. Cengage Learning.‏



How to Cite

Salah M. M. Dagnoush, & Gamal S. A. Khalifa. (2021). THE EFFECT OF USERS’ EFFORT EXPECTANCY ON USERS’ BEHAVIORAL INTENTION TO USE M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS: CASE STUDY IN LIBYA. International Journal on Recent Trends in Business and Tourism (IJRTBT), 5(4), 1-7.

Most read articles by the same author(s)