Challenges and Recommendations for the Implementation of Outcome-Based Education: A Systematic Review


  • Piyasena Kinchigune Gamaralalage Chanaka Chameera Faculty of Social Science Arts and Humanities, Lincoln University College, Malaysia / Faculty of Human Resource Management, Management Studies and Commerce, University of Sri Jayewardanepura, Sri Lanka
  • Lubna Ali Mohammed Faculty of Social Science Arts and Humanities, Lincoln University College, Malaysia
  • R.M. Dhanapala Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka



Enhancing the quality of education through focusing on the outcomes of the educational process is an increasingly highlighted area in the field of education. Outcome-based education (OBE) has been considered as the best approach to enhance the quality of education, and it is implementing inserted of traditional teacher-centered content-based education approach in most educational reforms. Also, there are research findings about this change in the literature. It is important to explore challenges and recommendations for OBE implementation especially for ‘those who are struggling with the same challenges’ and ‘who are planning for the same reforms.’ The purpose of this study is to discuss challenges and recommendations for OBE implementation in previous literature. The ‘conceptual content analyses’ on phenomenological and case study-based recent research publications were conducted. PRISMA article selection process was employed to identify suitable research papers. Twelve research papers published in the last ten years fulfilled all inclusion criteria. These research papers were selected from ‘Google Scholar’, Emerald Insight’ and ‘SAGE’ databases. Findings in both, challenges and recommendations were compiled under four categories. The first three categories: ‘defining intended learning outcomes’, ‘deciding teaching-learning activities’, and ‘student assessment’ were derived from the theory of constructive alignment. All other challenges and recommendations were discussed in the last category, ‘general’. However, there are more improvements with the OBE. However, it should not be considered as a magic solution for all issues and should be implemented carefully because there are no chances to learn through mistakes in educational reforms.


Outcome Based Education, Intended Learning Outcomes, Teaching Learning Activities, Student Assessment, Constructive Alignment


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How to Cite

Kinchigune Gamaralalage Chanaka Chameera, P., Mohammed, L. A. ., & Dhanapala, R. . (2023). Challenges and Recommendations for the Implementation of Outcome-Based Education: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Emerging Issues in Social Science, Arts and Humanities ( IJEISSAH), 2(1), 20-30.