• Cheong Vi Vian MAHSA University,Selangor
  • Aiza Jasmin binti Zulkifli MAHSA University,Selangor
  • Ahmed Naqiyuddin bin Hishamudin MAHSA University,Selangor
  • Lee Fei Xian MAHSA University,Selangor
  • Jaeverinna Ann Anak Henry Barry MAHSA University,Selangor
  • Ong Tjun Yee MAHSA University,Selangor
  • Tan Boon Chung MAHSA University,Selangor
  • Nur Safinah binti Abdul Rashid Gan MAHSA University,Selangor
  • Dr. Madhumita Sen MAHSA University,Selangor
  • Dr. Kavita Mohandas MAHSA University,Selangor



Introduction: Student’s cognitive levels have been implicated with their learning ability, whether they are the morning type or evening type. Morningness-eveningness refers to individual differences in circadian phase position of spontaneous sleep-wake rhythms and to subject alertness. Objective: To determine if there is an association between time of day and cognitive levels. Methodology: This project was a questionnaire study, and 137 volunteers were recruited from Year 2 preclinical medical students Batch 8 in MAHSA University. Pre-study, each research subject filled in a Student's Circadian Rhythm questionnaire. Word-finding crossword puzzles were used to estimate the cognitive level of subjects and were administered at two fixed times during a normal working day. Results: Our results indicate that 32.12% of the students are of the evening type, 9.49% are of the morning type and 58.39% of the students tested were neither morning nor evening types. We also found no relationship between their status (morning-type or evening-type) and their cognitive level, as most of the students performed better in the mornings. Conclusion: Our study has shown that the cognitive level is higher in the morning as compared to the evening in all types of students.


Cognition, Diurnal variation, Morningness-eveningness, Circadian Rhythm


Download data is not yet available.


Adan, A., Prat, G. & Sánchez-Turet, M. (2004). Effects of Nicotine Dependence on Diurnal Variations of Subjective Activation and Mood. Addiction, 99(12), pp.1599- 1607.

Bellatorre, A., Choi, K., Lewin, D., Haynie, D. & Simons-Morton, B. (2016). Relationships Between Smoking and Sleep Problems in Black and White Adolescents. Sleep, 40(1).

Blatter, K. and Cajochen, C. (2007). Circadian Rhythms in Cognitive Performance: Methodological Constraints, Protocols, Theoretical Underpinnings. Physiology & Behavior, 90(2-3), pp196-208.

Cagno, A.D., Fiorilli, G., Iuliano, E., Aquino, G., Giombini, A., Battaglia, C., Piazza, M., Tsopani, D. & Calcagno, G. (2014). Time of-Day Effects on Static and Dynamic Balance in Elite Junior Athletes and Untrained Adolescents. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 9(4), pp 615-625

Cavallera, G.M., Boari, G., Labbrozzi, D. & Bello, E. (2011). Morningness- Eveningness Personality and Creative Thinking Among Young People Who Play Recreational Sport. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39(4), pp.503-518.

Díaz-Morales, J. & Escribano, C. (2014). Consequences of Adolescent’s Evening Preference on School Achievement: a Review. Consecuencias de la mayor vespertinidad durante la adolescencia para el funcionamiento psicológico: una revisión. Anales de Psicología, 30(3).

English Oxford Living Dictionaries. (2018). Cognition. Definition of cognition in English by Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved from:

Horne, J.A. & Östberg, O.(1976)A Self-Assessment Questionnaire to Determine Morningness-Eveningness in Human Circadian Rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology, 4(2), pp 97-100.

Karagul, O., Nalcakan, G., Dogru, Y. & Tas, M. (2017). Effects of Circadian Rhythm on Balance Performance. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism, 24(3), pp155-161.

Kim, S., Dueker, G.L., Hasher, L. & Goldstein, D. (2002). Children's Time of Day Preference: Age, Gender and Ethnic Differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), pp1083-1090.

Klein, D.C. (1979) Circadian rhythms in the pineal gland. In: Endocrine Rhythms. Ed: Krieger, D.T. New York: Raven Press. 203–223.

Mishra, S. & Jha, M. (2014). Academic Performance in Relation to Gender and Morningness-Eveningness Preference. Mind and Society, 3 (I & II), pp 32-35.

Patterson, F., Malone, S.K., Lozano, A., Grandner, M.A. & Hanlon, A. (2016). Smoking, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Diet Associated with Habitual Sleep Duration and Chronotype: Data from the UK Biobank. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50(5), pp 715-726.

Pillai, J.A., Hall, C.B., Dickson, D.W., Buschke, H., Lipton, R.B. & Verghese, J. (2011). Association of Crossword Puzzle Participation with Memory Decline in Persons Who Develop Dementia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(06), pp 1006-1013. (n.d.). FREE Printable Word Search Puzzles. Retrieved from:

Randler, C. (2008). Differences Between Smokers and Nonsmokers in Morningness- Eveningness. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 36(5), pp 673- 680.

Smith, M., Burgess, H., Fogg, L. & Eastman, C. (2009). Racial Differences in the Human Endogenous Circadian Period. PLoS One, 4(6).

Spanagel, R., Rosenwasser, A.M., Schumann, G. & Sarkar, D. (2005). Alcohol Consumption and the Body Biological Clock. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 29(8), pp1550-1557.

University of Central Florida. (2001). Bloom’s Taxonomy. Retrieved from: omy/

Valdez, P., Ramírez & García, A. (2012). Circadian Rhythms in Cognitive Performance: Implications for Neuropsychological Assessment. Chrono Physiology and Therapy, 2, pp 81-92

Vitaterna, M.H., Takahashi, J.S.& Turek, F.W. (2001). Overview of Circadian Rhythms. Alcohol Research & Health, 25(2), pp 85-93

Wesensten, N., Belenky, G., Kautz, M.A., Thorne, D.R., Reichardt, R.M. & Balkin, T.J. (2002). Maintaining Alertness and Performance During Sleep Deprivation: Modafinil Versus Caffeine. Psychopharmacology, 159(3), pp 238-247.



How to Cite

Cheong Vi Vian, Aiza Jasmin binti Zulkifli, Ahmed Naqiyuddin bin Hishamudin, Lee Fei Xian, Jaeverinna Ann Anak Henry Barry, Ong Tjun Yee, Tan Boon Chung, Nur Safinah binti Abdul Rashid Gan, Dr. Madhumita Sen, & Dr. Kavita Mohandas. (2019). TO COMPARE THE COGNITIVE ABILITY OF PRECLINICAL MEDICAL STUDENTS AT DIFFERENT TIMES OF THE WORKING DAY AND CORRELATE THIS WITH THEIR MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS STATUS. Malaysian Journal of Medical Research (MJMR), 3(1), 29-40.