MACHIAVELLIANISM, EXPRESSIVE SUPPRESSION AND INTERNALIZING BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN UCSI INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL
The current study examines the associations of Machiavellianism (Mach) and Expressive Suppression (ES) as explanations for internalizing behaviors. This study aimed to examine Mach in adolescents with internalizing behaviors, and to explore the mediating role of ES in the relation between Mach and internalizing behaviors. Youth Self Report (YSR), Mach-IV scale alongside with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ-CA) was administered to 104 adolescents in UCSI International University with the age range of 13-18. Pearson correlation coefficients as well as standard mediational analysis was executed to test the stated hypothesis. It was concluded that Mach was positively correlated with internalizing behaviors in adolescents attending UCSI International University. It was drawn that ES partially mediates the indirect relationship between Mach and anxious/depressive symptoms while it fully mediates the relationship between Mach and Depressed/Withdrawn.
Keywords:Adolescents, Emotion Regulation, Internalizing Behaviors, Machiavellianism
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative Guide for the CBCL/418, YSR and TRF Profiles.University of Vermont, USA
Achenbach, T.M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the Behavior Problem Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: Queen City Printers.
Ahmad, N., Muhd Yusoff, F., Ratnasingam, S., Mohamed, F., Nasir, N. H., Mohd Sallehuddin, S., Naidu, B.M., Ismail, R.& Aris, T. (2015). Trends And Factors Associated with Mental Health Problems Among Children And Adolescents In Malaysia. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health,8(2), pp 125-136
Alati, R., O'Callaghan, M., Najman, J. M., Williams, G. M., Bor, W. & Lawlor, D. A. (2005). Asthma and Internalizing Behavior Problems in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(3), 462-470.
Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent Storm and Stress, Reconsidered. American Psychologist, 54(5), pp 317-326
Austin, E. J., Farrelly, D., Black, C. & Moore, H. (2007). Emotional Intelligence, Machiavellianism, And Emotional Maniupulation: Does EI Have A Dark Side? Personality and Individual Differences, 43(1), pp 179-189.
Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. Guilford Publications, USA Barlow, A., Qualter, P., & Stylianou, M. (2010). Relationships between Machiavellianism, emotional intelligence and theory of mind in children. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(1), 78-82.
Berk, L. E. (2017). Development Through the Lifespan. 7th Edition, Pearson Education, UK
Betts, J., Gullone, E. & Allen, J. S. (2009). An Examination of Emotion Regulation, Temperament, And Parenting Style s Potential Predictors Of Adolescent Depression Risk Status: A Correlational Study. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27(Pt 2), pp 473- 485.
Buchanan, C.M. & Holmbeck, G. N. (1998). Measuring Beliefs About Adolescent Personality and Behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 27(5), pp 607-627
Casey, B. J., Jones, R. M. & Hare, T. A. (2008). The Adolescent Brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124(1), pp 111-126.
Chandler, M., Fritz, A. S. & Hala, S. (1989). Small-Scale Deceit: Deception as a Marker of Two-, Three-, And Four-Year-Olds' Early Theories of Mind. Child Development, 60(6), pp 1263-1277.
Christie, R. & Geis, F.L. (1970). Studies in Machiavellianism. Academic Press, USA
Cole, P. M., Michel, M. K. & Teti, L. O. (1994). The Development of Emotion Regulation And Dysregulation: A Clinical Perspective. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2-3), pp 73-102.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches, 2nd Edition, Sage,USA
Deak, A., Bodrogi, B., Biro, B., Perlaki, G., Orsi, G.& Bereczkei, T.(2017). Machiavellian emotion regulation in a cognitive reappraisal task: An fMRI study.Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 17(3), pp 528-541
Dennis, M., Simic, N., Bigler, E. D., Abildskov, T., Agostino, A., Taylor, H. G., Rubin, K., Vannatta, K., Gerhardt, C.A., Stancin, T. & Yeates, K. O. (2013). Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Theory of Mind (Tom) In Children with Traumatic Brain Injury. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 5, pp 25-39.
Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Eggum, N. D. (2010). Emotion-Related Self-Regulation and Its Relation to Children’s Maladjustment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, pp 495– 525.
Geng, Y. G., Chang, G., Li, L., Zhang, R., Sun, Q. & Huang, J. (2016). Machiavellianism In Chinese Adolescents: Links to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 89, pp 19–23.
Geng, Y., Yang, Z., Zhang, R., Fan, W., Yan, F., Sai, X., & Liu, Y. (2017). Relations Between Machiavellianism, Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Adolescents: A One- Year Longitudinal Study. Personality and Individual Differences, 119, pp 296–300.
Gross, J. J. & John, O. P. (2003). Individual Differences in Two Emotion Regulation Processes: Implications for Affect, Relationships, and Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348-362.
Gross, J.J. (1998). The Emerging Field of Emotion Regulation: An Integrative Review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), pp 271-299.
Gullone, E. & Taffe, J. (2011). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ–CA): A Psychometric Evaluation. Psychological Assessment. pp 1-9
Hashim, I. (2007). Stress, Coping and Social Supports in the Adolescent Years. Kajian Malaysia,25(1), pp 97-115
Hughes, C., Fujisawa, K. K., Ensor, R., Lecce, S. & Marfleet, R. (2006). Cooperation and Conversations About the Mind: A Study of Individual Differences in 2-Year-Olds and Their Siblings. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, pp 53–72.
Idris, I.B. (2017). Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Children: Issues and Trends in Malaysia. International Journal of Public Health Research, 7(2), pp 829-835
Jaworowska, A. & Matczak, A. (2001). Kwestionariusz Inteligencji Emocjonalnej INTE. [Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire INTE]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
John, O. P. & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and Unhealthy Emotion Regulation: Personality Processes, Individual Differences, and Life Span Development. Journal of Personality, 72(6), pp 1301-1334.
Kaur, J., Cheong, S. M., Mahadir, N. B., Kaur, G., Manickam, M. A., Mat Noor, M., Ibrahim, N.& Rosman, A. (2014). Prevalence and Correlates of Depression Among Adolescents in Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 26(5 suppl), pp 53S–62S
Keenan, K. & Hipwell, A. E. (2005). Preadolescent Clues to Understanding Depression In Girls. Clinical child and family psychology Rreview, 8(2), PP89-105.
Langevin, R., Hebert, M. & Cossette, L. (2015). Emotion Regulation as A Mediator of the Relation Between Sexual Abuse and Behaviour Problems in Pre-Schoolers. Child Abuse & Neglect, 46, pp 16-26.
Larsen, J., Ainsworth, E., Harrop, C., Patterson, S., Hamilton, S., Szymczynska, P., Tew, J., Manthorpe, J. & Pinfold, V. (2013). Implementing Personalisation for People with Mental Health Problems: A Comparative Case Study of Four Local Authorities in England. Journal of Mental Health, 22(2), pp 174-182.
Lau, K. S. L. & Marsee, M. A. (2013). Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22(3), pp 355–367.
Liu J. (2004). Childhood Externalizing Behavior: Theory and Implications. Journal of child and adolescent psychiatric nursing, 17(3), pp 93-103.
Low, S.K., Tan, S.A., Kok, J.K, Nainee, S. & Viapude, G. N. (2018). The Mental Health of Adolescent Refugees in Malaysia. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2), pp 428-439.
Mash, E. J., & Barkley, R. A. (Eds.). (1998). Treatment of childhood disorders (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press
Muris, P., Meesters, C. & Timmermans, A. (2013). Some Youth Have A Gloomy Side: Correlates of the Dark Triad Personality Traits in Non-Clinical Adolescents. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44(5), pp 658–665.
Nik Jaafar, N. R., Tuti Iryani, M. D., Wan Salwina, W. I., Fairuz Nazri, A. R., Kamal, N. A., Prakash, R. J. & Shah, S. A. (2013). Externalizing and Internalizing Syndromes in Relation to School Truancy Among Adolescents in High-Risk Urban Schools. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 5, pp 27–34.
Pilch, I. (2008). Machiavellianism, emotional intelligence and social competence: Are Machiavellians interpersonally skilled? Polish Psychological Bulletin, 39(3), 158-164.
Rauthmann, J. F.(2013). Investigating the MACH–IV with Item Response Theory and Proposing the Trimmed MACH. Journal of Personality Assessment, pp 1-10
Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S. & Tidswell, T. (1991). The ‘Windows Task’ As A Measure of Strategic Deception in Preschoolers and Autistic Subjects. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(2)
Salwina, WI, W., Ruzyanei, NJ, N., Nurliza, AM., Irma, AM., Hafiz, B., Ayob, I., Lew, KX., Shariff, MR, R.& Iryani, MD, T. (2013). Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Adolescent Off-springs of Mothers with Depression. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences,9(2), pp 35-43
Seppala, E., Rossomando, T. & Doty, J. R. (2013). Social Connection and Compassion: Important Predictors of Health and Well-Being. Social Research: An International Quarterly. 80 (2), pp 411-430.
Sharp, C., Pane, H., Ha, C., Venta, A., Patel, A.B., Sturek, J. & Fonagy, P. (2011). Theory of Mind and Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Adolescents with Borderline Traits. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(6), pp 563-573.
Sjoberg, L.(2001).Emotional Intelligence: A Psychometric Analysis. European Psychologist, 6(2), pp 79-95
Susman, E. J., & Rogol, A. (2004). Puberty and psychological development. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 15-44). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Sutton, J. & Keogh, E. (2000). Social competition in school: Relationships with bullying, Machiavellianism and personality. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(Pt 3), pp 443-456
Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2/3), pp 25-52
Wenar, C. & Kerig, P. (2006). Developmental psychopathology: from infancy through adolescence. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/LUC-KOL/Desktop/Kerigposter.pdf
Wilson, D. S., Near, D. & Miller, R. R. (1996). Machiavellianism: A Synthesis of The Evolutionary and Psychological Literatures. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), pp 285-299.
Zahn-Waxler, C., Klimes-Dougan, B. & Slattery, M. (2000). Internalizing Problems of Childhood and Adolescence: Prospects, Pitfalls, and Progress in Understanding the Development of Anxiety and Depression. Development and Psychopathology, 12(3), pp 443- 466.