LIPID PEROXIDATION: A BIOMARKER OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia with serious metabolic disturbances in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism due to impaired insulin deficiency or insulin action and associated with increased free- radical activity. An increased free radical production has been observed in diabetic patients leading to increased oxidative stress. Oxidative stress (OS) represents a redox imbalance between the production and manifestation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) especially free radicals and a biological system's ability i.e. the endogenous antioxidant systems to detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Free oxygen radicals may lead to DNA mutations, changes in structure and function of proteins, and peroxidation of lipids in cell membrane by forming reactions with macromolecules. Lipid peroxidation, owing to free-radical activity, plays an important role in the development of complications of T2DM. The purpose of the study was designed to evaluate plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (index of lipid peroxidation) in T2DM patients compared to the healthy normal subjects in population of West Bengal. Levels of MDA were significantly higher in diabetic samples rather than the healthy controls. Elevated levels of MDA may be a useful biomarker of OS. Enhanced lipid peroxidation leads to an increase in free radical activity in T2DM. Increase in free radical activity in T2DM along with insulin resistance leads to activation of stress-sensitive intracellular signaling pathways which may play an important role in complications of T2DM.
Keywords:Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde
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