Sensitivity and Specificity of Non-Enhanced CT-Brain: A Single-Centre Cross-Sectional Study


  • Abdul Qadir Qader Department of Medicine, Herat University, First district, Herat City, Herat 3001, Afghanistan.
  • Javid Akhgar Department of Orthopedic and Spine Surgery, Jami Hospital, Block 68 Taher Foshanji Street, Badmorghan Square, 3001 86R5+8CC, Herat Afghanistan
  • Stephanie Wai Yee Tan Department of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Nahid Borji Department of Radiology, Qaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 91388, Iran
  • Hamzaini Abdul Hamid Department of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Aim: This study aims to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of non-enhanced CT (NECT) brain and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) as the reference standard in  diagnosing brain abnormalities and to assess changes in diagnosis (if any) after reviewing the contrast-enhanced study. Methods: This is a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study done by reviewing CT-scans performed at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre from January to December 2015. NECT and its corresponding CECT brain scans were evaluated by a radiologist and a radiology resident independently on separate occasions. The final diagnosis was categorized as normal and abnormal. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of NECT compared to CECT were calculated. Results: NECT and CECT brain scans obtained in 158 patients for indications other than trauma were reviewed. 50.63% (n=80) and 49.37% (n=78) of them are male and female respectively. Both paediatric and adult patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 49.33 (range=6 months to 92 years old). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of NECT brain were found to be 95 %, 100 %, 100% and 86.7 % respectively. Conclusion: NECT brain demonstrated high sensitivity, specificity and PPV. 6 out of 158 (3.8%) NECT brain failed to identify brain abnormality which were then seen on CECT. CECT following normal NECT should be limited to patient who i) has positive neurological sign after exclusion of stroke, ii) is a known case of primary tumor, iii) has inflammatory/infective disease i.e tuberculosis.


CT Brain , Normal and Abnormal CT Brain, Non-Enhanced CT Brain, Contrasted CT Brain


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How to Cite

Qader, A. Q., Akhgar, J., Tan, S. W. Y., Borji, N., & Abdul Hamid, H. (2023). Sensitivity and Specificity of Non-Enhanced CT-Brain: A Single-Centre Cross-Sectional Study. Malaysian Journal of Medical Research (MJMR), 7(4), 1-10.