• Ninin Herlinawati Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya Indonesia
  • Yulis Setiya Dewi Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya Indonesia
  • Ilya Krisnana Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya Indonesia
  • Yoyok Bekti Prasetyo Faculty Health Sciences, University Muhammadiyah of Malang Indonesia
  • Amel Dawood Kamel Maternal and newborn health nursing, College of Nursing, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for health sciences Riyadh-national guard-KSA, Department of Maternal and New Born Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Egypt




Introduction: The transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children in the world is still high, especially from the environment where children live and play. The purpose of this review was to analyze host and environmental factors for the risk of transmission of COVID-19 in children, based on empirical studies in the last 2 years. Methods: Search for journals or articles were used databases including Scopus, Science Direct, Proquest and Pubmed. Journal search was conducted from April to October 2020. The PRISMA checklist was used to assess study feasibility. The framework used to review is PICOS and the inclusion criteria used are English-language journals published in 2019 to 2020, discussions related to transmission to children, and the population is children. The data collection was carried out by examining the title, abstract, full text and assessed methodology to determine the eligibility of the journal. Results and Analysis: Thirty hundred journals have been identified, there are twelve journals that match the research criteria, the study explains the risk factors for the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children (n = 12). Research designs that are widely used to discuss factors associated with the transmission of COVID-19 in children are the Cohort studies, Case-report studies, Case Control, Survey studies, Observasi Studies dan Mix method Discussion: Host factors that influence the incidence of COVID-19 in children are immunity, comorbidities, personal hygiene behavior and nutritional status. Children with low immunity and comorbid susceptibility to contracting the virus and will become severe when the child's nutritional status is poor. The environmental factor of the child tends to be transmitted in the child's home and play environment. It is necessary to implement health protocols and increase nutritional intake especially  for children.


Risk Factors, Infection, COVID-19, Transmission, Children


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How to Cite

Ninin Herlinawati, Dewi, Y. S., Ilya Krisnana, Yoyok Bekti Prasetyo, & Amel Dawood Kamel. (2021). RISK FACTORS OF TRANSMISSION OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN CHILDREN: A REVIEW. The Malaysian Journal of Nursing (MJN), 13(1), 48-58. https://doi.org/10.31674/mjn.2021.v13i01.007