AWARENESS AND KNOWLEDGE TOWARD BREAST CANCER AND BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL DESCRIPTIVE STUDY AMONG UNDERGRADUATE FEMALE STUDENTS AT CAIRO UNIVERSITY, EGYPT
Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) accounts for 38.85% of total female cancer cases in Egypt and is the most prevalent cancer among Egyptian women. Early detection of breast cancer increases the effectiveness of the treatment, which results in a better prognosis, reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. Breast self-examination (BSE) is an important screening practice, a simple, economical, and noninvasive screening method for early detection of breast cancer. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive design was utilized to conduct the study. The study was conducted at Cairo University, Egypt. A convenient sample consisted of 500 female students were interviewed. The tool used for data collection was constructed by the researcher which divided into four parts: The first part was concerned with demographic general questions. The second part was related to the knowledge of breast cancer. The third part is concerned with knowledge about the risk factors of breast cancer. The fourth part dealt with knowledge about breast self- examination. Results: The study findings showed that the overall level of knowledge about breast cancer and breast self-examination were moderate (47% and 47.8% respectively). There was no association between total knowledge about breast cancer and total knowledge about breast self- examination (P=0.388). There is statistically significant association between place of residence and total knowledge about breast self-examination (P=0.001), there is statistically significant association between total knowledge of breast cancer with having family history of breast cancer (p=0.022). There is statistically significant association (P=0.03) between place of residence and total knowledge about breast cancer and showed that there is highly statistically significant association (0.0001) between marital status and total knowledge about breast cancer. Conclusion: Our study findings have shown that the level of awareness and knowledge about breast cancer and breast self-examination was generally moderate. Therefore, it is essential to increase the conduct for public interventions that increase awareness and encourage women to practice BSE on a regular basis as a national trend.
Keywords:Breast Cancer, Breast Self-Examination, Awareness, Knowledge
Abdelaziz, S.H., Salem, D., Zaki, H. & Atteya, S. (2015). Nurse’s Role in Early Detection of Breast Cancer through Mammography and Genetic Screening and Its Impact on Patient's Outcome. International Journal of Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering, 9(2), pp 155-162.
Adetule, Y.C. (2016). Breast Self-Examination (BSE): A strategy for early detection of breast cancer in Nigeria. Annals of Oncology, 27(suppl_9).
Ahmed, A., Zahid, I., Ladiwala, Z.F.R., Sheikh, R. & Memon, A.S. (2018). Breast self-examination awareness and practices in young women in developing countries: A survey of female students in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 7.
Ali, A.N., Yuan, F.J., Ying, C.H. & Ahmed, N.Z. (2019). Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude towards Breast Self-examination: A Cross-sectional Study among Female Pharmacy Students in Malaysia. International Research Journal of Oncology, pp 1-10.
American Cancer Society (2017). History of ACS recommendations for the early detection of cancer in people without symptoms.
Azemfac, K., Christie, S., Carvalho, M.M., Nana, T., Fonje, A.N., Halle-Ekane, G., Dicker, R., Chichom-Mefire, A. & Juillard, C., (2019). A community-based assessment of knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and prevalence of breast disease in Southwest Cameroon. Journal of Cancer Epidemiology.
Birhane, K., Alemayehu, M., Anawte, B., Gebremariyam, G., Daniel, R., Addis, S., Worke, T., Mohammed, A. & Negash, W. (2017). Practices of breast self-examination and associated factors among female debre berhan university students. International Journal of Breast Cancer.
Bray, F., Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Siegel, R.L., Torre, L.A. & Jemal, A. (2018). Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 68(6), pp 394-424.
Dadzi, R. & Adam, A. (2019). Assessment of knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among reproductive age women in Akatsi South district of Volta region of Ghana. PloS One, 14(12).
Erdem, Ö. & Toktaş, İ. (2016). Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about breast self-examination and mammography among female primary healthcare workers in Diyarbakır, Turkey. BioMed Research International.
Gupta, R., Gupta, S., Mehrotra, R. & Sodhani, P. (2020). Risk factors of breast cancer and breast self-examination in early detection: systematic review of awareness among Indian women in community and health care professionals. Journal of Public Health, 42(1), pp 118-131.
Gwarzo, U.M.D., Sabitu, K. & Idris, S.H. (2009). Knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among female undergraduate students. Annals of African medicine, 8(1).
Ibnawadh, S.K., Alawad, M.A., Alharbi, S.S., Alduawihi, N.A., Alkowiter, F.S., Alsalhy, A.E., Alzahrani, A.A. & Alenizy, L.A. (2017). Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination among females in medical and non-medical colleges in Qassim University. Journal of Health Specialties, 5(4), pp 219.
Kifle, M.M., Kidane, E.A., Gebregzabher, N.K., Teweldeberhan, A.M., Sielu, F.N., Kidane, K.H., Weldemenkerios, S.H. & Tesfay, M.G. (2016). Knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among female college students in Eritrea. AJPHR, 4(4), pp 104-8.
LoBiondo-Wood, G. & Haber, J. (2017). Nursing Research-E-Book: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Mekonnen, M. & Asefa, T. (2019). Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self examination among female undergraduate nursing students at University of Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences. Hospice & Palliative Medicine International Journal, 3(5), pp 167-173.
Mostafa, E.N.A. (2016) Knowledge about breast cancer and it's early detection measures among women with familial risk at Cairo university. Thesis submitted to Cairo University, Egypt.
Nde, F.P., Assob, J.C.N., Kwenti, T.E., Njunda, A.L. & Tainenbe, T.R.G. (2015). Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in the University of Buea. BMC Research Notes, 8(1), pp.43.
Oeffinger, K.C., Fontham, E.T., Etzioni, R., Herzig, A., Michaelson, J.S., Shih, Y.C.T., Walter, L.C., Church, T.R., Flowers, C.R., LaMonte, S.J. & Wolf, A.M. (2015). Breast cancer screening for women at average risk: 2015 guideline update from the American Cancer Society. Jama, 314(15), pp.1599-1614.
Reymen, I.M.M.J., Hammer, D.K., Kroes, P.A., van Aken, J.E., Dorst, C.H., Bax, M.F.T. & Basten, T. (2006). A domain-independent descriptive design model and its application to structured reflection on design processes. Research in Engineering Design, 16(4), pp.147-173.
Sama, C.B., Dzekem, B., Kehbila, J., Ekabe, C.J., Vofo, B., Abua, N.L., Dingana, T.N. & Angwafo III, F. (2017). Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teachers training college in Cameroon. Pan African Medical Journal, 28(1), pp.164.
Sayed, S., Ngugi, A., Ochieng, P., Mwenda, A.S. & Salam, R.A. (2017). Training health workers in clinical breast examination for early detection of breast cancer in low‐and middle‐income countries. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1).
Taleghani, F., Kianpour, M. & Tabatabaiyan, M. (2019). Barriers to breast self-examination among Iranian women. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 24(2), pp 108.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.