STUDY OF ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AMONG FEMALE HEALTHCARE WORKERS IN KUCHING, SARAWAK
Background: Working in the healthcare industry has its effects on the female workers fecundity. Disorders of reproduction is listed as one of the top ten leading work-related diseases and injuries. The objective of this study is to observe the occurrences of adverse pregnancy outcomes among female healthcare workers in relation to their work schedules and identify the most frequent adverse pregnancy outcome.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out obtaining pregnancy history and work schedule in the past three years. In the present study 469 respondents were obtained; 339 healthcare and 130 non-healthcare workers reporting a total of 564 pregnancies.
Results: In this study, adverse pregnancy outcomes among female healthcare workers is significantly higher than non-healthcare workers. There is no significant findings between healthcare and non-healthcare workers with respect to the types of adverse pregnancy outcomes and the work schedule. However, from the respondents’ lifetime pregnancy outcome, it is found that complete miscarriage occurred most frequently at 26.7% and among healthcare workers who work on shift.
Conclusion: Healthcare workers carry a higher risk to experience adverse pregnancy outcome with complete miscarriage being the most common and most of these experiences occurs among those who work on shift/on-call.
Keywords:Adverse pregnancy outcomes, Healthcare, Female workers, Sarawak
Aminian, O., Sharifian, S.A.A., Izadi, N., Sadeghniiat, K. & Rashedi, A. (2014). Association between maternal work activity on birth weight and gestational age. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 3(3), pp 200-203.
Ball, J., Maben, J., Murrells, T., Day, T. & Griffiths, P. (2014). 12-hour shifts: prevalence, views and impact. National Nursing Research Unit, King’s College London.
Berkowitz, G.S., Skovron, M.L., Lapinski, R.H. & Berkowitz, R.L. (1990). Delayed childbearing and the outcome of pregnancy. The New England Journal of Medicine, 322(10), pp 659-664.
Bonde, J.P., Jørgensen, K.T., Bonzini, M. & Palmer, K.T. (2013). Miscarriage and occupational activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding shift work, working hours, lifting, standing, and physical workload. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 39(4), pp 325–334.
Bonzini, M., Coggon, D. & Palmer, K.T. (2007). Risk of prematurity, low birthweight and pre- eclampsia in relation to working hours and physical activities: a systematic review. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 64(4), pp 228-243.
Burdorf, A., Figà-Talamanca, I., Jensen, T.K. & Thulstrup, A.M. (2006). Effects of occupational exposure on the reproductive system: core evidence and practical implications. Occupational Medicine (Oxford England), 56(8), pp 516-520.
Centre of Disease Control (CDC) (1989). NIOSH: Research and Demonstration Grants, Fiscal Year 1989. U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Atlanta, Georgis.
Davis, S. & Mirick, D.K. (2006). Circadian disruption shift work and the risk of cancer: a summary of the evidence and studies in Seattle. Cancer Causes & Control: CCC, 17(4), pp 539-545.
Eskenazi, B., Fenster, L., Wight, S., English, P., Windham, G.C. & Swan, S.H. (1994). Physical exertion as a risk factor for spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 5(1), pp 6- 13.
Familoni, O. (2008). An overview of stress in medical practice. African Health Sciences, 8(1), pp 6-7.
Figà-Talamanca, I. (2006). Occupational risk factors and reproductive health of women. Occupational Medicine (Oxford England),56(8), pp 521-531.
Gabbe, S.G., Morgan, M.A., Power, M.L., Schulkin, J. & Williams, S.B. (2003). Duty hours and pregnancy outcome among residents in obstetrics and gynecology. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 102(5 Pt 1), pp 948-951.
Harrington J. (2001). Health effects of shift work and extended hours of work. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(1), pp 68-72.
Kim, O., Ahn, Y., Lee, H-Y., Jang, H.J., Kim, S., Lee, J.E., Jung, H., Cho E., Lim, J.Y., Kim, M.J.,
Willett, W.C., Chavarro, J.E. & Park, H.Y. (2017). The Korea Nurses’ Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study. Journal of Women's Health (2002), 26(8), pp 892-899.
Landsbergis, P.A. & Hatch, M.C. (1996). Psychosocial work stress and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass), 7(4), pp 346-351.
Malaysia Employment Act (1955). Retrieved from: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/48055/66265/E55mys01.htm#c1
Marcoux, S., Bérubé, S., Brisson, C. & Mondor, M. (1999). Job strain and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass), 10(4), pp 376-382.
Matteo, B., Palmer, K.T., David, C., Michele, C., Antonella, C. & Ferrario, M.M. (2011). Shift work and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of currently available epidemiological studies. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 118(12), pp 1429-1437.
McDonald, A.D., McDonald, J.C., Armstrong, B., Cherry, N.M., Nolin, A.D. & Robert, D. (1988). Prematurity and work in pregnancy. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 45(1), pp 56-62.
Mozurkewich, E.L., Luke, B., Avni, M., Wolf, F.M. (2000). Working conditions and adverse pregnancy outcome: a meta-analysis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 95(4), pp 623-35.
Nurminen, T. (1989). Shift work, fetal development and course of pregnancy. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 15(6), pp 395-403.
Palmer, K.T., Bonzini, M., Harris, E.C., Linaker, C. & Bonde, J.P. (2013). Work activities and risk of prematurity, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia: an updated review with meta-analysis. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 70(4), pp 213-222.
Park, C., Kang, M-Y., Kim, D., Park, J., Eom, H. & Kim, E-A. (2017). Prevalence of abortion and adverse pregnancy outcomes among working women in Korea: A cross-sectional study. PloS One, 12(8), e0182341.
Royal College of Physicians (n.d.). Advising women with a healthy, uncomplicated, singleton pregnancy on: shift work and the risk of miscarriage and preterm delivery. Faculty of Occupational Medicine. Retrieved from: http://www.nhshealthatwork.co.uk/images/library/files/Clinical%20excellence/Pregnancy_info_s hiftwork_A4.pdf
Wergeland, E. & Strand, K. (1997). Working conditions and prevalence of pre-eclampsia, Norway 1989. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 58(2), pp 189-196.
Xu, G., Wu, Y., Yang, L., Yuan, L., Guo, H., Zhang, F., Guan, Y. & Yao, W. (2014). Risk factors for early miscarriage among Chinese: a hospital-based case-control study. Fertility and Sterility, 101(6), pp 1663-1670.
Yamada, S. (1986). [The ten leading work-related diseases and injuries proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)]. Journal of UOEH, 8(4), pp 457-469.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.