Epidemiology of Meningitis in Infants and Children in the Pediatric Hospitals, Kenitra (Morocco), 2018–2021
Background: Meningitis is a public health medical emergency. It is a health problem in Morocco. Aim: This study was to determine the epidemiological, cytochemical, and bacteriological profile of this disease and the lethality by type of meningitis in patient children in the Northwest region of Morocco. Methods: The present investigation is a cross-epidemiological, cytochemical, and bacteriological study of meningitis. The target population was cases of all forms of meningitis recorded in children under the age of 15 hospitalized in the pediatric department of Al Idrissi Hospital during the period (2018–2021). Data were collected from meningitis declaration forms. Results: About 100 cases were included in the study, with an average cumulative incidence of all forms of meningitis during the study period of 24.34 per 100,000 children living in the province of Kenitra. There was a male predominance in all types of meningitis, with 68% males in total. In addition, (22%) infants aged <1 year. Fevers, neck stiffness, purpura, and photophobia were significantly associated with meningitis in infants (1 to 15 years) (p<0.05). The febrile meningeal syndrome was observed in 57% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and was cloudy in 50.5% of cases. The median leukocyte count was 280 mm3. Mean glycorachia was 0.47 g/l (±0.23 g/l) and mean proteinorachia was 1.23 g/l (±1.35 g/l). Bacterial meningitis was the most common type of meningitis observed, followed by the occurrence of lymphocytic meningitis and confirmed meningococcal disease. Overall, an 11% mortality rate was found. Conclusion: Meningitis is a real health problem in the area of Kenitra, particularly in children, requiring the effective involvement of all health personnel and the community in control actions, the allocation of necessary resources, and regular monitoring of the measures taken.
Keywords:Cerebrospinal Fluid, Epidemiology, Lethality and Morocco, Meningitis
Abdelrahim, N. A., Fadl-Elmula, I. M., & Ali, H. M. (2019). Bacterial meningitis in Sudanese children; critical evaluation of the clinical decision using clinical prediction rules. BMC Pediatrics, 19(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1684-3
Águeda, S., Campos, T., & Maia, A. (2013). Prediction of bacterial meningitis based on cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in children. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 401-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2012.12.002
Amrani, K. E., & Barkia, A. (2016). Epidemiological, clinical profile and prognostic factors of bacterial meningitis in children admitted to the Children's Hospital of Rabat, Morocco. Revue Marocaine de Santé Publique, 3(5). https://revues.imist.ma/index.php/RMSP/article/view/5160 . Accessed on 13th july, 2021
Barichello, T., Rocha Catalão, C. H., Rohlwink, U. K., Kuip, M. V. D., Zaharie, D., Solomons, R. S., ... & Namale, V. S. (2023). Bacterial meningitis in Africa. Frontiers in neurology, 14, 822575. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2023.822575
El Azher, A., Bourrous, M., & Bouskraoui, M. Purulent meningitis in children. Thesis to obtain the degree of doctor of medicine. Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy Marrakech. Morocco; Thesis No. 17/2014. http://wd.fmpm.uca.ma/biblio/theses/annee-htm/art/2014/article17-14.pdf
Hossain, M. I., Ali, M. S., & Islam, M. S. (2021). Microbial Assay of the Waterborne Pathogen on Supplied Drinking Water in Gopalganj Area, Bangladesh and its Future Effect. International Journal of Advancement in Life Sciences Research, 4(2), 1-4. https://doi.org10.31632/ijalsr.2021.v04i02.001
Kane, B., Abdou, M., Kone, O., Dembele, G., Diallo, K. W., & Fane, B. (2020). Causes of bacterial meningitis in children from 1 month to 15 years in the department of pediatrics at Hopital du Mali from 2012 to 2018. Rev Mali Infect Microbiol, Tome 15. https://doi.org/10.53597/remim.v15i2.1736
Loutfi, A., EL Hioui, M., Jayche, S., Lacheheb, M., Alaoui, A., Lhou, A., Dahou, B., and Ahami, A.O.T (2020). Epidemiological, cytochemical, and bacteriological profile of meningitis among adults and children in North West of Morocco. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS, 23(7), 891-897. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2020.891.897
Merabet, M., Aouragh, R., & Idrissi, A. (2018). Acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis in children under 5 years of age in the Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima region (Morocco) 2006-2015: Epidemiological, clinical and biological profile. Community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis in children under 5. Antropo, 40, 1-11. https://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/http://www.didac.ehu.es/antropo/40/4001/Merabet.pdf
Mijovic, H., & Sadarangani, M. (2019). To LP or not to LP? Identifying the Etiology of Pediatric Meningitis. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 38(6S), S39-S42. https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000002313
Ministry of Health Morocco (2010). Guide to the fight against community-acquired bacterial meningitis.https://www.sante.gov.ma/Publications/GuidesManuels/Documents/Guide%20m%C3%A9ningites.pdf
Nayak, N., Baral, N., Shrestha, R., Parajuli, R., Hamal, D., Bhatta, D. R., ... & Gokhale, S. (2018). Hafnia alvei bacteremia following bronchopneumonia in an eleven-month old child: a case report from a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. International Journal of Advancement in Life Sciences Research, 22-25. https://doi.org/10.31632/ijalsr.2018v01i02.004
Stahl, J. P., Cohen, R., Denis, F., Gaudelus, J., Lery, T., Lepetit, H., & Martinot, A. (2013). Vaccination against meningococcus C. vaccinal coverage in the French target population. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, 43(2), 75-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2013.01.001
World Health Organization (2021). Meningitis. https://www.who.int/fr/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/meningitis . Accessed on 12th july, 2021.
Yerdessov, S., Zhunussova, A., Imanova, A., Gusmanov, A., Sakko, Y., Zhakhina, G., ... & Gaipov, A. (2023). Epidemiological characteristics and climatic variability of viral meningitis in Kazakhstan, 2014–2019. Frontiers in Public Health, 10, 1041135. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.1041135
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 The Malaysian Journal of Nursing (MJN)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.