Association Between Nutritional Habits and Glycosylated Hemoglobin Level in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31674/mjn.2022.v14i02.002

Abstract

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is one of the top 10 causes of mortality worldwide, and poor eating habits may lead to an uncontrolled level of HbA1c. A cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was utilized. A convenient sample of 143 adult patients was utilized. The tools used were (a) structured interview questionnaire, (b) Health assessment and lifestyle questionnaire, and (c) Nutritional habits questionnaire. The mean age of the study sample was (47.39±11.53 years) with the mean level of HbA1c (8.05 ±1.45). HbA1c level was positively correlated with the nutritional habits score (r=0.343**; P= 0.000). A significant relationship was found between levels of HbA1c and eating fruits and vegetables. Monthly income is significantly associated with nutritional habits. To promote and improve nutritional habits, regular meetings in clinical settings should be held by an interdisciplinary care team including nurses and dieticians to provide assessment, follow-up, and nutritional advice for T2D patients. Replication of the study in different geographical areas is recommended.

Keywords:

Nutritional Habits, Type 2 Diabetes, HbA1c, Nutritional Pattern

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References

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Bijlsma-Rutte, A., Rutters, F., Elders, P. J., Bot, S. D., & Nijpels, G. (2018). Socio‐economic status and HbA1c in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 34(6), e3008. https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3008

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Dyson, P., McArdle, P., Mellor, D., & Guess, N. (2019). James Lind Alliance research priorities: what role do carbohydrates, fats and proteins have in the management of Type 2 diabetes, and are there risks and benefits associated with particular approaches?. Diabetic Medicine, 36(3), 287-296. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.13826

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Ji, H., Chen, R., Huang, Y., Li, W., Shi, C., & Zhou, J. (2019). Effect of simulation education and case management on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 35(3), e3112. https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3112

Jiang, J., Qiu, H., Zhao, G., Zhou, Y., Zhang, Z., Zhang, H., ... & Xu, W. H. (2012). Dietary fiber intake is associated with HbA1c level among prevalent patients with type 2 diabetes in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China.

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Ojo, O. (2019). Dietary intake and type 2 diabetes. Nutrients, 11(9), 2177. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092177

Sami, W., Ansari, T., Butt, N. S., & Ab Hamid, M. R. (2017). Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review. International Journal of Health Sciences, 11(2), 65.

Sanders, L. M., Wilcox, M. L., & Maki, K. C. (2022). Red meat consumption and risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1-10. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-022-01150-1

Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) (2019). Saturated fats and health: SACN report. Public Health England. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/saturated-fats-and-health-sacn-report

Shamsi, N., Shehab, Z., AlNahash, Z., AlMuhanadi, S., & Al-Nasir, F. (2013). Factors influencing dietary practice among type 2 diabetics. Bahrain Med Bull, 35(3), 1-14.

Sucher, S., Markova, M., Hornemann, S., Pivovarova, O., Rudovich, N., Thomann, R., ... & Pfeiffer, A. F. (2017). Comparison of the effects of diets high in animal or plant protein on metabolic and cardiovascular markers in type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 19(7), 944-952. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.12901

Tao, X., Li, J., Zhu, X., Zhao, B., Sun, J., Ji, L., ... & Jiang, C. (2016). Association between socioeconomic status and metabolic control and diabetes complications: a cross-sectional nationwide study in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 15(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-016-0376-7

Tay, J., Luscombe-Marsh, N. D., Thompson, C. H., Noakes, M., Buckley, J. D., Wittert, G. A., ... & Brinkworth, G. D. (2014). A very low-carbohydrate, low–saturated fat diet for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care, 37(11), 2909-2918. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-0845

Tayyem, R., Hamdan, A., Alhmmadi, K., Eissa, Y., Al-Adwi, M., Al-Haswsa, Z., ... & Shi, Z. (2022). Association of Glycemic Control With Different Diets Followed by Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Findings From Qatar Biobank Data. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.813880

Yun, I., Joo, H. J., Park, Y. S., & Park, E. C. (2022). Association between Physical Exercise and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Korean Patients Diagnosed with Diabetes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(6), 3280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063280

Asaad, G., Sadegian, M., Lau, R., Xu, Y., Soria-Contreras, D. C., Bell, R. C., & Chan, C. B. (2015). The reliability and validity of the perceived dietary adherence questionnaire for people with type 2 diabetes. Nutrients, 7(7), 5484-5496. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075231

Badedi, M., Solan, Y., Darraj, H., Sabai, A., Mahfouz, M., Alamodi, S., & Alsabaani, A. (2016). Factors associated with long-term control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2109542

Basiak-Rasala, A., Rozanska, D., & Zatonska, K. (2019). Food groups in dietary prevention of type 2 diabetes. Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny, 70(4). https://doi.org/10.32394/rpzh.2019.0086

Bellisle, F. (2014). Meals and snacking, diet quality and energy balance. Physiology & Behavior, 134, 38-43.

Bijlsma-Rutte, A., Rutters, F., Elders, P. J., Bot, S. D., & Nijpels, G. (2018). Socio‐economic status and HbA1c in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 34(6), e3008. https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3008

Casey, M., & Wintergerste, T. (Eds.). (2000). Best practice guidelines.

Delahanty, L. M. (2020). Nutritional considerations in type 2 diabetes mellitus. UpToDate. Feb 21, 2022. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/nutritional-considerations-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus

Dyson, P., McArdle, P., Mellor, D., & Guess, N. (2019). James Lind Alliance research priorities: what role do carbohydrates, fats and proteins have in the management of Type 2 diabetes, and are there risks and benefits associated with particular approaches?. Diabetic Medicine, 36(3), 287-296. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.13826

England, C. Y., Thompson, J. L., Jago, R., Cooper, A. R., & Andrews, R. C. (2014). Dietary changes and associations with metabolic improvements in adults with type 2 diabetes during a patient-centred dietary intervention: an exploratory analysis. BMJ Open, 4(6), e004953. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004953

Geistanger, A., Arends, S., Berding, C., Hoshino, T., Jeppsson, J. O., Little, R., ... & IFCC Working Group on Standardization of Hemoglobin A1c. (2008). Statistical methods for monitoring the relationship between the IFCC reference measurement procedure for hemoglobin A1c and the designated comparison methods in the United States, Japan, and Sweden. Clinical Chemistry, 54(8), 1379-1385. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2008.103556

Gogoi, P. (2020). Application of SPSS programme in the field of social science research. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(5), 2424-2427.

Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2012). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence. Elsevier Health Sciences. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns2013.04.27.31.30.b1488

Hawkes, C., Smith, T. G., Jewell, J., Wardle, J., Hammond, R. A., Friel, S., ... & Kain, J. (2015). Smart food policies for obesity prevention. The Lancet, 385(9985), 2410-2421.

Ji, H., Chen, R., Huang, Y., Li, W., Shi, C., & Zhou, J. (2019). Effect of simulation education and case management on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 35(3), e3112. https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3112

Jiang, J., Qiu, H., Zhao, G., Zhou, Y., Zhang, Z., Zhang, H., ... & Xu, W. H. (2012). Dietary fiber intake is associated with HbA1c level among prevalent patients with type 2 diabetes in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China.

Ma, Q., Liu, H., Xiang, G., Shan, W., & Xing, W. (2016). Association between glycated hemoglobin A1c levels with age and gender in Chinese adults with no prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Biomedical Reports, 4(6), 737-740. https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2016.643

Ojo, O. (2019). Dietary intake and type 2 diabetes. Nutrients, 11(9), 2177. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092177

Sami, W., Ansari, T., Butt, N. S., & Ab Hamid, M. R. (2017). Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review. International Journal of Health Sciences, 11(2), 65.

Sanders, L. M., Wilcox, M. L., & Maki, K. C. (2022). Red meat consumption and risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1-10. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-022-01150-1

Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) (2019). Saturated fats and health: SACN report. Public Health England. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/saturated-fats-and-health-sacn-report

Shamsi, N., Shehab, Z., AlNahash, Z., AlMuhanadi, S., & Al-Nasir, F. (2013). Factors influencing dietary practice among type 2 diabetics. Bahrain Med Bull, 35(3), 1-14.

Sucher, S., Markova, M., Hornemann, S., Pivovarova, O., Rudovich, N., Thomann, R., ... & Pfeiffer, A. F. (2017). Comparison of the effects of diets high in animal or plant protein on metabolic and cardiovascular markers in type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 19(7), 944-952. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.12901

Tao, X., Li, J., Zhu, X., Zhao, B., Sun, J., Ji, L., ... & Jiang, C. (2016). Association between socioeconomic status and metabolic control and diabetes complications: a cross-sectional nationwide study in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 15(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-016-0376-7

Tay, J., Luscombe-Marsh, N. D., Thompson, C. H., Noakes, M., Buckley, J. D., Wittert, G. A., ... & Brinkworth, G. D. (2014). A very low-carbohydrate, low–saturated fat diet for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care, 37(11), 2909-2918. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-0845

Tayyem, R., Hamdan, A., Alhmmadi, K., Eissa, Y., Al-Adwi, M., Al-Haswsa, Z., ... & Shi, Z. (2022). Association of Glycemic Control With Different Diets Followed by Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Findings From Qatar Biobank Data. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.813880

Yun, I., Joo, H. J., Park, Y. S., & Park, E. C. (2022). Association between Physical Exercise and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Korean Patients Diagnosed with Diabetes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(6), 3280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063280

Published

2022-10-01

How to Cite

Abdelaziz, S. H. ., Abdo, O. I. ., & Llatif, S. K. A. . (2022). Association Between Nutritional Habits and Glycosylated Hemoglobin Level in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The Malaysian Journal of Nursing (MJN), 14(2), 7-13. https://doi.org/10.31674/mjn.2022.v14i02.002