Exploring Social Stigma and Awareness Towards Tuberculosis in a Municipality in Southern Philippines: A Mixed-Methods Study


  • Sittie Jamiah Adiong College of Health Sciences, Mindanao State University, Marawi City 9700, Philippines
  • Ashley A. Bangcola College of Health Sciences, Mindanao State University, Marawi City 9700, Philippines
  • Alibasher Macalnas College of Health Sciences, Mindanao State University, Marawi City 9700, Philippines




Background: Social stigma and awareness are frequently associated with the low rate of clinical diagnosis, case detection, and successful treatment of patients with Tuberculosis (TB). In the Philippines, however, there have been few studies on TB stigma and awareness.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to look into the level of social stigma and awareness about tuberculosis among patients, their relatives, and the community in a municipality in the southern Philippines.

Methods: An institution-based survey was conducted among 244 participants from various Regional Health Units (RHU) to assess social stigma and awareness of the deadly disease. Participants were divided into three groups: patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB), family members of the patients, and community members. The researcher used an exploratory sequential mixed method design to get a deep understanding of the statistical relationships between the variables and their context, collecting quantitative data first and then qualitative data.

Results: The findings revealed that the patient and the patient's relatives were more aware of the causes, clinical presentation, treatment, and mode of treatment of tuberculosis than members of the community, with a general mean of 1.60. This is attributed to the family's role as the primary caregiver, as well as a lack of general information and advertising about TB in the community. On the other hand, all three groups experienced high levels of social stigma, with a general mean of 1.90. Fear of transmission and discrimination were identified as the primary reasons. There is no significant relationship found between respondents' level of awareness and social stigma, which can be interpreted to mean that the stigma persists regardless of awareness.

Conclusion: The study reveals that general awareness of TB among community members stems from rumour and gossip rather than legitimate sources. As a result, the patient's and family members' social stigma remains high, which can contribute to unsuccessful case detection and treatment. It is thus recommended that policymakers strengthen programmes aimed at identifying and addressing the problems that lead to stigma. 


Tuberculosis, Social Stigma, Awareness, Rural Health Center


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How to Cite

Adiong, S. J. ., A. Bangcola, A., & Macalnas , A. . (2023). Exploring Social Stigma and Awareness Towards Tuberculosis in a Municipality in Southern Philippines: A Mixed-Methods Study. The Malaysian Journal of Nursing (MJN), 14(3), 94-101. https://doi.org/10.31674/mjn.2023.v14i03.011