Correlation between Profile and Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients


  • Johnry C. Bulat-ag Cebu South Medical Center, 6045 Lalawigan ng Cebu, Philippines
  • Marc Ryan V. Portuguez Cebu South Medical Center, 6045 Lalawigan ng Cebu, Philippines
  • John Carlo L. Divina Cebu South Medical Center, 6045 Lalawigan ng Cebu, Philippines



There is a need to perform investigations on the threats of COVID-19 and its correlation with patient outcomes to design a basis for a more responsive vaccine deployment approach. The present study assessed the outcomes of COVID-19 and its relationship with patients’ demographic and clinical profiles. A descriptive correlational design was utilized in this investigation. Results revealed a significant relationship between patients’ severity of symptoms and underlying conditions and outcomes. Patients with prior conditions such as Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and those manifesting shortness of breath were associated with a worse clinical outcome. This variable becomes a determinant of the severity of the disease and its outcomes. The implication of the study is that it provides knowledge of the disease and the classification of risks that impact the outcomes of COVID-19 patients.


SARS-CoV2, COVID-19, Pandemic


Download data is not yet available.


Abad, C. L., Lansang M.A., Cordero, C., Viray, E.D., Tiangco, B.J., Bello, J.A., Francisco, J.J., Buensalido, M., Tayzon, M.F., Henson, K.E., Berba, R., Pacheco, E. & Saniel, M. (2021). Early experience with COVID-19 patients in a private tertiary hospital in the Philippines: Implications on surge capacity, healthcare systems response, and clinical care. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 10(2021) 100695.

Alkundi, A., Mahmoud, I., Musa, A., Naveed, S. & Alshawwaf, M. (2020). Clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients with diabetes in the United Kingdom: A retrospective single centre study. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 165, 2020,108263,

Bargain, O., & Aminjonov, U. (2020). Between a rock and a hard place: poverty and COVID-19 in developing countries. IZA Institute of Labor Economics.

Ceballos, R. F. (2021). Mortality analysis of early COVID-19 cases in the Philippines based on observed demographic and clinical characteristics. Recoletos Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 9(1), 91-106.

Chen N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F. & Han, Y. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet. 2020; 395:507–13.

Chen, Y., Chen, J., Gong, X., Rong, X., Ye, D., Jin, Y., & Guo, J. (2020) Clinical characteristics and outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients infected with COVID-19: a retrospective study. Engineeing , 6(10), 1170-1177.

Day, M. (2020). Covid-19: four fifths of cases are asymptomatic, China figures indicate. The BMJ. 369(1375).

Dragano, N., Rupprecht, C. J., Dortmann, O., Scheider, M., & Wahrendorf, M. (2020). Higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization for unemployed: an analysis of 1,298,416 health insured individuals in Germany. MedRxiv.

Drefahl, S., Wallace, M., Mussino, E., Aradhya, S., Kolk, M., Brandén, M., ... & Andersson, G. (2020). A population-based cohort study of socio-demographic risk factors for COVID-19 deaths in Sweden. Nature Communications, 11(1), 1-7.

Fitzpatrick, K. M., Drawve, G., & Harris, C. (2020). Facing new fears during the COVID-19 pandemic: The State of America’s mental health. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 75, 102291.

Fresan, U., Guevara, M., Elía, F., Albéniz, E., Burgui, C., Castilla, J., ... & Castilla, J. (2021). Independent Role of Severe Obesity as a Risk Factor for COVID‐19 Hospitalization: A Spanish Population‐Based Cohort Study. Obesity, 29(1), 29-37.

Garg, S., Kim, L., Whitaker, M., O’Halloran, A., Cummings, C., Holstein, R., ... & Fry, A. (2020). Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019—COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–30, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(15), 458.

Gold, J. A., Rossen, L. M., Ahmad, F. B., Sutton, P., Li, Z., Salvatore, P. P., ... & Jackson, B. R. (2020). Race, ethnicity, and age trends in persons who died from COVID-19—United States, May–August 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(42), 1517.

Gomez, J. M. D., Du-Fay-de-Lavallaz, J. M., Fugar, S., Sarau, A., Simmons, J. A., Clark, B., ... & Volgman, A. S. (2021). Sex differences in COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality. Journal of Women's Health, 30(5), 646-653.

Guan, W. J., Liang, W. H., He, J. X., & Zhong, N. S. (2020). Cardiovascular comorbidity and its impact on patients with COVID-19. European Respiratory Journal, 55(6).

Hamer, M., Kivimäki, M., Gale, C. R., & Batty, G. D. (2020). Lifestyle risk factors, inflammatory mechanisms, and COVID-19 hospitalization: A community-based cohort study of 387,109 adults in UK. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 184-187.

Lim, J., Jeon, S., Shin, H. Y., Kim, M. J., Seong, Y. M., Lee, W. J., ... & Park, S. J. (2020). Case of the index patient who caused tertiary transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 in Korea: the application of lopinavir/ritonavir for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia monitored by quantitative RT-PCR. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 35(6).

Lipsitch, M., Swerdlow, D., & Finelli, L. (2020). Defining the Epidemiology of COVID-19 studies needed. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(13), 1194-1196.

Liu, Y., Mao, B., Liang, S., Yang, J. W., Lu, H. W., Chai, Y. H., ... & Xu, J. F. (2020). Association between age and clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19. European Respiratory Journal, 55(5).

Mendy, A., Apewokin, S., Wells, A., & Morrow, A. (2020). Factors associated with hospitalization and disease severity in a racially and ethnically diverse population of COVID-19 patients. MedRxiv.

Neira, D. P., Watts, A., Seashore, J., Polychronopoulou, E., Kuo, Y. F., & Sharma, G. (2021). Smoking and risk of COVID-19 hospitalization. Respiratory Medicine, 182, 106414.

Paudel S. (2020). A meta-analysis of 2019 novel coronavirus patient clinical characteristics and comorbidities. Research Square.

Pradhan, A., & Olsson, P. E. (2020). Sex differences in severity and mortality from COVID-19: are males more vulnerable? Biology of sex Differences, 11(1), 1-11.

Pranata, R., Soeroto, A. Y., Huang, I., Lim, M. A., Santoso, P., Permana, H., & Lukito, A. A. (2020). Effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking on the outcome of COVID-19. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 24(8), 838-843.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Qiu, H., Tong, Z., Ma, P., Hu, M., Peng, Z., Wu, W., ... & China Critical Care Clinical Trials Group (CCCCTG). (2020). Intensive care during the coronavirus epidemic. Intensive Care Medicine, 46, 576-578.

Recalde M., Pistillo A., Fernandez-Bertolin S., Roel E., Aragon M., Freisling H., Prieto-Alhambra D., Burn E., & Suarte_Salles E. (2021) Body Mass Index and Risk of COVID-19 Diagnosis, Hospitalization, and Death: A Cohort Study of 2524926 Catalans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 106(12), e5030-e5042.

Sobotka, T., Brzozowska, Z., Muttarak, R., Zeman, K., & Di Lego, V. (2020). Age, gender and COVID-19 infections. MedRxiv, 2020-05.

Tavares, F. F., & Betti, G. (2020). Vulnerability, poverty and COVID-19: risk factors and deprivations in Brazil. World Development. Forthcoming.

Wang, Y., Lu, X., Li, Y., Chen, H., Chen, T., Su, N., ... & Wang, J. (2020). Clinical course and outcomes of 344 intensive care patients with COVID-19. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 201(11), 1430-1434.

World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), 21 September 2020.

Yang, J., Zheng, Y., Gou, X., Pu, K., Chen, Z., Guo, Q., ... & Zhou, Y. (2020). Prevalence of comorbidities in the novel Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 94(1), 91-95.

Yousefzadegan, S., & Rezaei, N. (2020). Case report: death due to COVID-19 in three brothers. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 102(6), 1203.

Zhang J, Wang X, Jia X, Li J, Hu K, Chen, G., Wei, G., Zhou, C., Yu, H., Yu, M., Lei, H., Cheng, F., Zhang, B., Xu, Y., Wang, G., & Dong, W. (2020). Risk factors for disease severity, unimprovement, and mortality in COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 26(6), 767-772.

Zhao, Q., Meng, M., Kumar, R., Wu, Y., Huang, J., Lian, N., ... & Lin, S. (2020). The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of COVID‐19: A systemic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of Medical Virology, 92(10), 1915-1921.

Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., ... & Tan, W. (2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine.



How to Cite

Bulat-ag, J. C. ., V. Portuguez, M. R., & L. Divina, J. C. . (2023). Correlation between Profile and Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients. The Malaysian Journal of Nursing (MJN), 14(3), 10-20.