Translating and Validating a Bahasa Version of The Hand Hygiene Questionnaire


  • Chang Woan Ching International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
  • Elvina Lau Yuh Harn Community Clinic, Sarawak 96000, Malaysia
  • Tan Yen Wen Staff Nurse, Penang Adventist Hospital10350, Malaysia
  • Goh Yi Xuan Staff Nurse, Pantai Hospital, Kuala Lumpur 59100, Malaysia



Background: Translating questionnaire into a different language might be challenging. It involves a systematic process in ensuring reliability and validity of the translated questionnaire.  Purpose: This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of a hand hygiene questionnaire in Malaysian context. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire of socio-demographic data, level of knowledge on hand hygiene, and attitude towards hand hygiene practice in English version was translated to Bahasa Malaysia using forward and backward translation procedure and a test and re-test study. A total of 30 samples recruited for the study. Results: The translated questionnaire was validated by a panel of three content experts. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values of test and re-test for knowledge (0.949) and attitude (0.859) scales indicating an excellent internal reliability of the questionnaire. Conclusion: The translated questionnaire has met the validity and reliability of Bahasa version of the hand hygiene scales which support the use of the instrument among Malaysian community.


Translation, Validation, Test-Retest, Hand Hygiene Practice


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How to Cite

Chang Woan Ching, Elvina Lau Yuh Harn, Tan Yen Wen, & Goh Yi Xuan. (2022). Translating and Validating a Bahasa Version of The Hand Hygiene Questionnaire. The Malaysian Journal of Nursing (MJN), 13(4), 34-38.