• Machiko Higuchi National College of Nursing, Japan (NCNJ), Tokyo, Japan &National Centre for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan



Background: Both the older adult population and the number of patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have rapidly increased in low- and middle-income countries in recent years. This has added to the burden of health issues, such as communicable diseases and conditions related to maternal and child health.

Results: Approximately 90% of premature deaths in low- and middle-income countries are due to NCDs. Individuals with NCDs are also more susceptible to severe illness or death from infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which causes the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and older adults with NCDs have a particularly increased susceptibility to COVID-19. Insufficient nutrition and maternal metabolic status during pregnancy are causes of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease during adulthood.

Conclusion: A holistic approach with integrated multi-specialized systemssuch as early intervention to develop healthy behavior among children, improvements in women’s educational opportunities, and training that enables health care workers to handle multiple health issues in the community—is needed to address health issues at various stages of human development. In this manner, the vicious circle of hindering sustainable development will be broken not only in low- and middle-income countries but also worldwide, allowing humans to coexist with other living beings.


Non-Communicable Diseases, Low-Income Countries, Middle-Income Countries


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