• Siti Romaino Mohd Nor Clinical Research Centre, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Mohd Adam Bujang Clinical Research Centre, Sarawak General Hospital, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Lai Wei Hong National Institutes of Health (NIH), Ministry of Health Malaysia, Institute for Clinical Research, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Hon Yoon Khee National Institutes of Health (NIH), Ministry of Health Malaysia, Institute for Clinical Research, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Roslinda Abu Sapian National Institutes of Health (NIH), Ministry of Health Malaysia, NIH Management Office, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Nurul Syarbani Eliana Musa National Institutes of Health (NIH), Ministry of Health Malaysia, NIH Management Office, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Mohd Idris Omar National Institutes of Health (NIH), Ministry of Health Malaysia, NIH Management Office, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Hazlinda Jamalludin National Institutes of Health (NIH), Ministry of Health Malaysia, Institute for Clinical Research, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Norizan Rosli National Institutes of Health (NIH), Ministry of Health Malaysia, Institute for Clinical Research, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia




Background: Although the nurses in Malaysia are shouldering an important daily responsibility for providing optimal nursing care to the patients, Bashar (2019) had noted that a majority of nurses who were working in a public teaching hospital in Malaysia had rarely applied evidence-based practice (EBP) when discharging their daily duties and responsibilities, despite having a positive attitude toward evidence-based nursing (EBN). Therefore, it seems likely for these Malaysian nurses to be encountering many barriers in their involvement in clinical research [and also in research utilization (RU)]. Objective: This cross-sectional survey utilized a self-administered questionnaire within a study population of the Malaysian nurses working in a government hospital to determine the level of involvement of nurses in clinical research at Hospital Putrajaya from May to August 2015, which led to an assessment of the level of association between a list of pre-specified demographic and job-related characteristics and the involvement of nurses in clinical research, in order to identify any plausible factors which might have an association with either facilitating or hindering these nurses from their involvement in clinical research. Methods: After having prepared and validated the self-administered questionnaires for this study, they were then distributed to a total of 406 nurses working in Hospital Putrajaya. This self-administered questionnaire was specifically designed to achieve the objectives of this study which aimed to collect the baseline socio-demographic information of the respondents, and also information pertaining to their nursing practice and their participation in activities that were related to nursing research. Results: This study had found that among 406 nurses from Hospital Putrajaya who received the questionnaires, a total of 300 nurses had completed this questionnaire, meaning that the response rate was 300/406 or 73.9%. The baseline socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents were mostly female (94.3%), of Malay ethnicity (94.0%), with a mean age of 30.9 years, having an average 7.9 years of service and were married (77.3%). Most of these respondents were Staff Nurses (75.2%), followed by Community Nurses (13.1%), Sister-KUP (7.7%) and Sister (4.0%). A majority of the respondents reported that they were not interested in doing research (59.7%) and the two main reasons for their lack of interest in doing research was that they had no interest in research (41.7%) and also they did not have enough time to do research (25.7%). Less than half of the nurse respondents were previously involved in research (31.5%), in several specific areas such as clinical trials (36.6%) and also research in the field of preventive medicine (19.4%).The reason for them not being involved in research before was that (i) they had no opportunity to do research (43.7%) and (ii) they were not interested in research (27.4%). Only 19.9% of the respondents had received additional training in statistics, 14.9% of them had previously used a statistical package for analyzing data, and 3.4% of them had a prior experience of publishing research articles in scientific journals. They also reported that they did not read journals regularly (58.1%) and were not confident in interpreting medical literature (69.0%). Conclusion: Our findings in this study had shown that both the proportion of Malaysian nurses who were interested in clinical research (40.3%) and also those with prior experience in conducting clinical research (31.5%) remained very low. Results of this study also showed that these Malaysian nurses might have encountered various barriers in their quest for their involvement in clinical research and utilizing these findings in their daily nursing practice. Two of the most important barriers identified by this study are (i) the lack of having undergone appropriate training in research methodology and also (ii) the lack of the necessary statistical expertise for analyzing research findings. Hence, this study provides valuable information for formulating strategies to increase nurses’ participation in research activities at Hospital Putrajaya by providing more research training opportunities, and enhancing the level of awareness and increasing the accessibility to these resources by the nurses. It is our sincere hope that the results obtained from this study can be aptly utilized for promoting quality and ethical research among the nurses at Hospital Putrajaya by providing adequate support to and facilitating their future research endeavours.


Nurses, Research, Hospital Putrajaya


Download data is not yet available.


Bahadori, M., Raadabadi, M., Ravangard, R. & Mahaki, B. (2016). The Barriers To The Application Of The Research Findings From The Nurses' Perspective: A Case Study In A Teaching Hospital. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 5(1), pp 14-20.

Bashar, F. J. (2019). Assessing Attitudes towards Knowledge and Use of Evidence-Based Practice among Nurses Working in a Teaching Hospital in Kuala Lumpur. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 7(1), pp 25-30.

Bergtold, J. S., Yeager, E. A. & Featherstone, A. M. (2011). Sample Size And Robustness Of Inferences From Logistic Regression In The Presence Of Nonlinearity And Multicollinearity. Selected Paper Prepared For Presentation At The Agricultural & Applied Economics Association’s 2011 AAEA & NAREA Joint Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. (No. 321-2016-11000).

Birks, M., Francis, K., Chapman, Y., Mills, J. & Porter, J. (2009). Supporting The Evolution Of A Research Culture Among Nurses In Malaysia. The Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27(1), pp 89-93.

Brown, C. E., Wickline, M. A., Ecoff, L. & Glaser, D. (2009). Nursing Practice, Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceived Barriers to Evidence‐Based Practice at an Academic Medical Center. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(2), pp 371-381.

Chien, W. T., Bai, Q., Wong, W. K., Wang, H. & Lu, X. (2013). Nurses’ Perceived Barriers to and Facilitators of Research Utilization in Mainland China: A Cross-Sectional Survey. The Open Nursing Journal, 7, pp 96-106.

Efstratios, A. (2013). Nurses' Research Behavior and Barriers to Research Utilization Into Clinical Nursing Practice: A Closer Look. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 6(1), pp 16-28.

Egerod, I. & Hansen, G. M. (2005). Evidence‐Based Practice Among Danish Cardiac Nurses: A National Survey. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 51(5), pp 465-473.

Estabrooks, C., Wallin, L. & Milner, M. (2003). Measuring Knowledge Utilization in Health Care. International Journal of Policy Evaluation and Management, 1, pp. 3-36.

Evans, G., Duggan, R. & Boldy, D. (2014). An Exploration Of Nursing Research Perceptions of Registered Nurses Engaging in Research Activities at a Metropolitan Hospital in Western Australia. Collegian, 21(3), pp 225-232.

Gould, D. (1986). Pressure Sore Prevention And Treatment: An Example Of Nurses’ Failure To Implement Research Findings. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 11(4), pp 389-394.

Guyatt, G., Cairns, J., Churchill, D., Cook, D., Haynes, B., Hirsh, J., Irvine, J., Levine, M., Levine, M., Nishikawa, J. & Sackett, D. (1992). Evidence-Based Medicine: A New Approach To Teaching The Practice of Medicine. The Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), 268(17), pp 2420-2425.

Hunt, J. (1981). Indicators for Nursing Practice: The Use ff Research Findings. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 6(3), pp 189-194.

Hutchinson, A. M. & Johnston, L. (2004). Bridging The Divide: A Survey Of Nurses’ Opinions Regarding Barriers To, and Facilitators Of, Research Utilization in The Practice Setting. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13(3), pp 304-315.

Ingersoll, G. L. (2000). Evidence-Based Nursing: What It Is and What It Isn't. Nursing Outlook, 48(4), pp 151-152.

Konwar, G. & Kalita, J. (2018). The Barriers and Challenges of Conducting Nursing Research and Communicating Research Findings into Practice. International Journal of Health Sciences & Research, 8(6), pp 216-222.

Lewis, L. S., McNett, M., Aucoin, J., Riemen, K., Yeagers, S. & Olson, D. W. M. (2014). Barriers to Conducting Multicenter Nursing Research. Journal of Nursing & Care, 3(2).

MacArthur, J., Hill, G. & Callister, D. (2014). Professional Issues Associated with The Clinical Research Nurse Role. Nursing Standard, 29(14), pp 37-43.

Melnyk, B. M., Fineout‐Overholt, E., Fischbeck Feinstein, N., Li, H., Small, L., Wilcox, L. & Kraus, R. (2004). Nurses' Perceived Knowledge, Beliefs, Skills, and Needs Regarding Evidence‐Based Practice: Implications for Accelerating The Paradigm Shift. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 1(3), pp 185-193.

Ministry of Health Malaysia. (2016). Health Facts.: Planning Division, Health Informatics Centre. MOH/SRAN/17.16(AR). Retrieved from: https://www.moh.gov.my/moh/resources/Penerbitan/Penerbitan%20Utama/HEALTH%20FACTS/KKM%20HEALTH%20FACTS%202016.pdf.

Niederhauser, V. P. & Kohr, L. (2005). Research endeavors Among Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (REAP) Study. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 19(2), pp 80-89.

Nkrumah, I., Atuhaire, C., Priebe, G. & Cumber, S. N. (2018). Barriers For Nurses’ Participation in and Utilisation of Clinical Research in Three Hospitals within The Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. The Pan African Medical Journal, 30(24).

Nurmi, S. M., Pietilä, A. M., Kangasniemi, M. & Halkoaho, A. (2015). Nurse Leaders’ Perceptions of the Ethical Recruitment of Study Subjects in Clinical Research. Journal of Nursing Management, 23(8), pp 1020-1028.

Oluwatosin, A. (2014). Conduct and Utilization of Research Among Nurses at Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 4(7), pp. 139-147.

Polit, D. F. & Beck, C. T. (2004). Nursing Research: Principles and Methods, Lipponcott Williams and Wilkins: Philadelphia.

Rashid, K. A., Gomathy, S. & Manan, A. (2012). The Involvement of Doctors in Research Activities in Two Major Hospitals in Penang Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 12(2), pp. 31-38.

Shayan, S. J., Kiwanuka, F. & Nakaye, Z. (2019). Barriers Associated with Evidence‐Based Practice Among Nurses in Low and Middle‐Income Countries: A Systematic Review. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 16(1), pp. 12-20.

Shifaza, F., Evans, D. & Bradley, H. (2014). Nurses’ Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitators to Implement EBP in the Maldives. Advances in Nursing, 2014.

Thompson, D. S., Estabrooks, C. A., Scott-Findlay, S., Moore, K. & Wallin, L. (2007). Interventions Aimed at Increasing Research Use in Nursing: A Systematic Review. Implementation Science, 2(1), pp 1-16.

Umarani. J. (2014). Perceived Barriers to Evidence Based Practice Among Registered Nurses. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(32), pp 15-19.

Wang, L. P., Jiang, X. L., Wang, L., Wang, G. R. & Bai, Y. J. (2013). Barriers To and Facilitators of Research Utilization: A Survey Of Registered Nurses In China. PloS One, 8(11)

World Health Organisation. (2010). Classifying Health Workers: Mapping Occupations To The International Standard Classification. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/hrh/statistics/Health_workers_classification.pdf?ua=1.

Wu, X., Wu, X., Gao, Y., Wang, L., Jin, J., Li, Y., Cheng, S., Wen, X., Wang, A., Li, Q. & Shang, S. (2019). Research Training Needs of Clinical Nurses: A Nationwide Study Among Tertiary Hospitals In China. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 6(3), pp 300-308.

Yanagawa, H., Takai, S., Yoshimaru, M., Miyamoto, T., Katashima, R. & Kida, K. (2014). Nurse Awareness of Clinical Research: A Survey in a Japanese University Hospital. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 14(1), pp 1-8.



How to Cite

Siti Romaino Mohd Nor, Mohd Adam Bujang, Lai Wei Hong, Hon Yoon Khee, Roslinda Abu Sapian, Nurul Syarbani Eliana Musa, Mohd Idris Omar, Hazlinda Jamalludin, & Rosli, N. (2021). FACTORS INFLUENCING NURSES’ PARTICIPATION IN CLINICAL RESEARCH : A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY IN HOSPITAL PUTRAJAYA, MALAYSIA. The Malaysian Journal of Nursing (MJN), 12(4), 60-71. https://doi.org/10.31674/mjn.2021.v12i04.009