VERBAL ABUSE IN THE WORKPLACE: THE UNFOLDING PHENOMENON
Violence in the workplace is a common situation among workers all over the world. This may happen to almost all companies and industries where violence is really a concern. One workplace where violence is rampant includes the hospitals and nursing homes. In the Philippines, nurses are confronted with physical, verbal, and emotional abuses. However, evidence of verbal abuse against nurses in the workplace are little and even fragmented literature reviews particularly on exposure rates, sources, and responses. This study determined the lived experiences of nurses who experienced verbal abuses in their workplace. The study utilized qualitative descriptive phenomenological approach that describe social phenomenon that is concerned with opinions, feelings and experiences of nurses as they occur naturally in the time of verbal abuse. Purposive sampling was used, and it focused on nurses who are employed in the hospitals. The instrument utilized the Bevans interview guide which is an essential concept to understand the present phenomenon. Descriptive bracketing allowed the researcher to focus on the pure essences of the phenomenon. The Colaizzi’s eight steps were used in analyzing the data. The results of the study revealed the themes as result of their lived experiences. The first theme is destructive experience, the second theme is reactive responses, and the third theme is the evasive strategies. With these findings, the researcher noted the phases of the nurses lived experiences. Despite of difficulties, pain and sadness, the nurses have the capacity to resolve and cope any kinds of violent situations.
Abdou, S.A. & El-Azeem, W.A. (2009). Verbl Abuse Against Nurses. The Medical Journal of Cairo University, 77(3), pp 335-341.
Al-Shamlan, N., Jayaseeli, N., Al-Shawi, M.& Al-Joudi, A. (2017). Are nurses verbally abused? A cross-sectional study of nurses at a university hospital, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Family and Community Medicine, 24(3), pp 173-180.
Anderson, H. (2010). Nurses experience of Workplace Violence: Towards Effective Intervention. Final Report, Work Safe BC, USA.
Benjamin, R. (2017). Uncertainty, Regret, and Psychological Pain: Why it hurts to be unsure. Thesis. The University of British Columbia, Canada. Retrieve from: https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/24/items/1.0355254
Bevan, M. (2014). A Method of Phenomenological Interviewing. Qualitative Health Research. Qualitative Health Research, 24 (1), pp 136-144.
Bordignon, M. & Monteiro, M. I. (2016). Violence in the workplace in Nursing: consequences overview. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 69(5), pp 996-999.
Castillo-Montoya, M. (2016). Preparing for Interview Research: The Interview Protocol Refinement Framework. The Qualitative Report, 21(5), pp 811-831.
Chan, Z. C., Fung, Y. & Chien, W. (2013). Bracketing in Phenomenology: Only Undertaken in the Data Collection and Analysis Process. The Qualitative Report, 18(30), pp 1-9.
Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. 2nd Edition, CA: Sage Publications.
Cromie, J. (2007). Verbal beatings hurt as much as sexual abuse: Can lead to depression, anxiety, and worse. Health and MedicineThe Harvard Gazatte. Retrieved from: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2007/04/verbal-beatings-hurt-as-much-as-sexual- abuse/
Digal, S. (2018). Manila, 11,558 women victims of physical and sexual violence in 2017 alone. Asianews.it. Retrieved at http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Manila,-11,558-women- victims-of-physical-and-sexual-violence-in-2017-alone-43297.html
Edward, K. & Welch, T. (2011). The extension of Colaizzi’s method of phenomenological enquiry. Contemporary Nurse, 39(2), pp 163-171.
Fader, S. (2020). You’re Not Crazy, But Emotional Abuse Can Make You Think You Are. Retrieved from: https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/abuse/youre-not-crazy-but- emotional-abuse-can-make-you-think-you-are/
Given, L.M. (2008). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. 2nd Edition. UK: SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.yanchukvladimir.com/docs/Library/Sage%20Encyclopedia%20of%20Qualita tive%20Research%20Methods-%202008.pdf
Hilton, P.E. (1989). The influence of verbal abuse on intention to leave an organization among registered nurses. Theses Digitization Project. 548. Retrieved from: https://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/etdproject/548/?utm_source=scholarworks.lib.csusb.ed u%2Fetd-project%2F548&utm_medium=PDF&utm_campaign=PDFCoverPages
International Council of Nurses (2007). Guidelines on coping with violence in the workplace. Innternational Council of Nurses, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/579770cd197aea84455d6908/t/57d86302d1758e16f 4e0f072/1473798914990/guideline_violence.pdf
Jackson, D., Hutchinson, M., Luck, L. & Wilkes, L. (2013). Mosaic of verbal abuse experienced by nurses in their everyday work. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(9), pp 2066-2075.
Johnston, D., Bell, C., Jones, M. Farquharson, B., Allan, J., Schofield, P., Ricketts, I., Johnston, M. (2015) Stressors, Appraisal of Stressors, Experienced Stress and Cardiac Response: A Real-Time, Real-Life Investigation of Work Stress in Nurses. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50(2), pp 187-197.
Kisa, S. (2008). Turkish nurses' experiences of verbal abuse at work. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 22(4), pp 200-207.
Kvak, S. (2017). Generalized Workplace Harassment and Physical Health Outcomes in Nurses in the Philippines. Dissertation M.P.H. University of Washington. USA: University of Washington Libraries.
Lambert A. (2014). Understanding Verbal Abuse. Morningside Recovery: A Light House Property. Retrieved from: https://www.morningsiderecovery.com/addiction- blog/understanding-verbal-abuse/
Lykhina, A. (2013). Women’s lived experiences of emotional and psychological abuse in heterosexual relationships: Behaviours, effects, awareness and support. Thesis. RMIT University, Australia. Retrieved from: https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/eserv/rmit:160466/Lykhina.pdf
Manderino, M.A. & Berkey, N. (1997). Verbal abuse of staff nurses by Physicians. Journal of Professional Nursing, 13(1), pp 48-55.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (2015). Workplace Violence in Healthcare: Understanding the Challenge. Retrieved from: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3826.pdf
Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. (pp. 169-186). Retrieved from: http://legacy.oise.utoronto.ca/research/field- centres/ross/ctl1014/Patton1990.pdf
Peter, E. (2015). The ethics in qualitative health research: special considerations. Ciencia & Saude Coletiva, 20(9), pp 2625-2630.
Philippine Statistic Authority (2017). Meaning of Verbal Abuse. Retrieved from: https://psa.gov.ph/content/verbal-abuse
Pich, J. & Kable, A. (2011). Patient-related violence against nursing staff working in the Emergency Department: a systematic review. A JBI Library of Systematic Reviews, 9(48), pp 1-22.
Polit, D. & Beck, C. (2016). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice. 10th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Qutoshi, S.B. (2018). Phenomenology: A Philosophy and Method of Inquiry. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 5(1), pp 215-222.
Streker, P.J. (2012). “I Wish That He Hit Me”: The Experiences of People Who Have Been Psychoemotionally Abused and have Psychoemotionally Abused Others. Thesis, Victoria University, Australia. Retrieved from: http://vuir.vu.edu.au/19413/1/Peter_Streker.pdf
Tongco, M.D.C. (2007) Purposive Sampling as a Tool for Informant Selection.Ethnobotany Research & Applications, 5, pp 147-158.
Tufford, L. & Newman, P. (2012). Bracketing in qualitative research. Qualitative Social Work, 11(1), pp 80-96.
Turnbull, A. (2015). Nurses feel ‘unsupported and undervalued’ finds RCN. Independent Nurse: For Primary Care and Community Nurses. Retrieved from: https://www.independentnurse.co.uk/news/nurses-feel-unsupported-and-undervalued- finds-rcn/108048/
Varga, M. & Holloway, S. (2014). The lived experience of the wound care nurse in caring for patients with pressure ulcers. International Wound Journal, 13(2), 243-51.