• Adel Hammam Faculty of Tourism & Hotel Management, October 6th University, Egypt
  • Sally Fathy El Sayed Hotel Management Department, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, October 6th University, Egypt


Not so long ago, Egypt was a fashionable destination worldwide. It's incredible heritage, the white desert and the Red Sea beaches attracting millions of visitors each year. Unfortunately the numbers who are still coming are not enough to keep this huge tourism industry survive; especially after five years of instable political conditions and terrorism attacksPolitical transitions were never easy for any country, and in the case of the house of the Pharaohs, it is claiming too many victims. Nearly five years after the start of the Egyptian Revolution, unemployment figures continue to rise, a clear impact of terrorism and political instability on tourist demand, motives of terrorists in targeting tourists, using tourism as a political tool, the effects of political violence on destination image, unwisely crisis management, and insufficient recovery marketing efforts caused many serious problems to hospitality sector in particular. This article examines the impact of unwise recovery after political instability and terrorism on increasing manpower's migration from the hospitality sector.

The findings illustrate which practices of government/owners/managers considered important and which practices of government/owners/managers actually used during such crisis. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research and management of crisis. The data was collected via a semi-structured questionnaire addressed to human resources managers in Hurghada region and a questionnaire addressed to jobless hoteliers. The research focused on a sample of the five star resort hotel's in Hurghada, Egypt.


Terrorism, Political instability, Destination image, Crisis management, Employee migration, Recovery marketing


Download data is not yet available.


Albattat, A., Som, A., Magablih, K. & Marzuk, A. (2015). Emergency Preparedness in Jordanian Hotels: Planning ndand Management. Jordan 2. International Conference on Tourism and Hospitality. Dead Sea, Jordan.

Becken, S. & Hughey, K. (2013). Linking tourism into emergency management 7 structures to enhance disaster risk reduction. Tourism Management.36. pp 77-85.

Beirman, D. (2002). Marketing of tourism destinations during a prolonged crisis: Israel and the Middle East. Journal of Vacation Marketing.8(2). pp 167-176.

Butscher, S. A., Vidal, D. & Dimier, C. (2009). Managing hotels in downturn: smart revenue growth through pricing optimization. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management.8(5), pp 405-409.

Cashman, A., Cumberbatch, J. & Moore, W. (2012). The effects of climate change on tourism in small states: evidence from the Barbados case. Tourism Review.67(3), pp 17-29.

Coles, T. (2004). A local reading of a global disaster: Some lessons on tourism management from an Annus Horribilis in Southwest England. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing.15(2-3). pp 173-197.

Coppola, D. P. (2010). Introduction to International Disaster Management.3rd edition. Elsevier Science, UK

Fink, S. (1986). Crisis management. American Association of Management. New York.

Fontana, A. & Frey, H. (2005). The Interview: from Neutral Stance to Political Involvement. Handbook of Qualitative Research.3rd edition, London, SAGE Publications Ltd., London

Gonzalez-Herrero, A. & Pratt, C. B. (1998). Marketing crises in tourism: Communication strategies in the United States and Spain. Public Relations Review,24(1), pp 83-97

Greenberg, P. (2012). The travel detective: Is Egypt safe? Available at: t_b_1205841.html

Guilding, C. (2009). Accounting essentials for hospitality managers. 2nd edition. Oxford Elsevier, UK.

Gurtner, Y.K. (2005). Adversity and resilience: A case study of crisis management in a tourist-reliant destination (pp. 196-198). In P. Tremblay & A. Boyle (Eds.) Sharing Tourism Knowledge. Proceedings of the 2005 CAUTHE Conference, Darwin: Charles Darwin University.

Hanna, M. (2013). The Tourism Crisis in Post January 25th Egypt. The American University in Cairo School of Global Affairs and Public Policy - Department of Public Policy and Administration, published thesis.

Hooper, S. (2001). Destination’s selling point is its difference. Travel Trade Gazette UK. pp 45.

Ichinosawa, J. (2006). Reputational disaster in Phuket: the secondary impact of the tsunami on inbound tourism. Disaster Prevention and Management 15(1). pp 111-123.

IDSC & ILO (2011). Implications of the Global Financial and Economic Crisis on the Tourism Sector in Egypt. International Labour Organization. Geneva.

Issa, I.A. & Altinay, L. (2006). Impact of political instability on tourism planning and development: the case of Lebanon. Tourism Economics,12(3), pp 361-381.

ITB Berlin Conference. (2012). Maps of Egypt. Retrieved December 9, 2015. Available at: http://talent.adweek .com/gallery/ITB-Berlin-Maps-of-Egypt/5627733

Johnston, D., Becker, J., Gregg, C., Houghton, B., Paton, D., Leonard, G. & Garside, R. (2007). Developing warning and disaster response capacity in the tourism sector in coastal Washington, USA. Disaster Prevention and Management.16(2), pp 210-216.

Jones, E., Mohammad, A. A. A., Dawood, A. A. A. & Sayed, H. A. (2012). The Impact of the Egyptian Political Events during 2011 on Hotel Occupancy in Cairo. Journal Tourism Research Hospitality.1(3).

Knowles, T., Diamantis, D. & El-Mourhabi, J. B. (2004). The globalization of the tourism and hospitality: a strategic perspective. 2nd edition. THOMSON, Australia.

Laws, B. P. (2007). Crisis Management in Tourism. CABI Publishing, New York.

Low, S. P., Liu, J. & Sio, S. (2010). Business continuity management in large construction companies in Singapore. Disaster Prevention and Management.19(2), pp 219-232.

Mansfeld, Y. (2006). The role of security information in tourism crisis management: the missing link. Tourism, Security & Safety: From Theory to Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp 271-290.

Okumus, F., Altinay, L. & Chathoth, P. (2010). Strategic stmanagement for Hospitality and Tourism.1edition. Elsevier LTD. Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Page, S.J., Connell, J. (2009). Tourism: A Modern Synthesis. 2nd edition. Cengage Learning EMEA, UK.

Paraskevas, A. (2006). Crisis Management or Crisis Response System: A complexity science approach to organizational crises. Management Decision. 44(7). pp 892–907.

Paraskevas, A. & Arendell, B. (2007). A strategic framework for terrorism prevention and mitigation in tourism destinations. Tourism Management, 28(6), pp 1560-1573.

Pearson, C. &Clair, J. (1998). Reframing Crisis Management. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), pp 59 –76.

Peters. M. & Pikkemaat, B. (2005). Crisis management in alpine winter sports resorts–The 1999 avalanche disaster in Tyrol. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. 19(2/3). pp 9-20.

Pforr, C. (2006). Tourism in Post-Crisis is Tourism in Pre-Crisis: A Review of the Literature on Crisis Management in Tourism. School of Management, Curtin University of Technology.

Pforr, C. & Hosie, P.J. (2008). Crisis Management in Tourism. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 23(2-4), pp 249-264.

Reid, R.D. & Bojanic, D.C. (2006). Hospitality Marketing Management. 5th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Canada

Ritchie, B.W. (2009). Crisis and Disaster Management for Tourism. Channel View Publications, UK

Rittichainuwat, B. (2005). Understanding perceived travel risk differences between first time and repeat 3rd global summit on peace through tourism-education forum: one earth one family: Travel & Tourism-serving a higher purpose, Pattaya, Thailand.

Santana, G. (2004). Crisis management and tourism. Beyond the rhetoric. In C. M. Hall, D. J. Timothy & D. T. Duval (Eds.) Safety and Security in Tourism. Relationships, Management and Marketing, Haworth Press, New York, pp. 299-322.

Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. 4th edition. Wiley Publications, New York.

Selbst, P. (1978). Crisis management strategy: Competition and change in modern enterprises. New York: Routledge.

UNEP & WTO. (2005). Making Tourism More Sustainable – A Guide for Policy Makers. United Nations Environment Program and World Tourism Organization. Paris& Madrid.

UNEP. (2011). Towards a Green Economy: pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication– Tourism: investing in energy and resource efficiency. PARTII: Investing in energy and resource efficiency: Tourism. Available at:

UNWTO & ILO. (2009). Statement on Tourism and Employment. International Labour Organization and World Travel Organization. p.1. Geneva/Madrid.

Wachowaik, H. (2006). Tourism and Borders: Contemporary Issues, Policies, and International Research. Ashgate Publishing Limited. England.

Wang, J. &Ritchie, B. (2012). Understanding Accommodation Managers' Crisis Planning Intention: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Tourism Management, 33(5), pp 1057–1067.

WEF. (2011). Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report: Beyond the downturn. World Economic Forum. Geneva.

WEF (2013). Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report. World Economic Forum. Geneva.

WTTC. (2015). Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2015. World Travel and Tourism Council, Egypt.




How to Cite

Adel Hammam, & Sally Fathy El Sayed. (2017). THE EFFECT OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY AND TERRORISM ON THE MIGRATION OF EGYPTIAN HOSPITALITY MANPOWER (CASE STUDY ON FIVE STAR RESORT HOTELS IN HURGHADA). International Journal on Recent Trends in Business and Tourism (IJRTBT), 1(2), 55-68. Retrieved from