• Hazem Ahmed Khairy epartment of Hotel Studies, University of Sadat City, Sadat City, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt.
  • Yee Ming Lee Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Hospitality Management, Auburn University, USA


This study aimed to determine how four dimensions of employees’ brand citizenship behaviors (BCBs)—brand helping behavior, brand acceptance, brand missionary, and brand advancement—relate to customers’ brand commitment (BC), taking customers’ brand trust (BT) into consideration as a mediator factor. Data were collected from 16 independent hotels in the Greater Cairo region in Egypt. Two different versions of the surveys were distributed to collect data: one for customers and the other for employees. Both employees and their customers were asked to answer the surveys, which were then matched. A total of 240 matched surveys were collected and analyzed. The findings revealed a significant correlation between the four dimensions of BCBs and customers’ BC; however, only two of the BCBs—brand helping behavior and brand missionary—were significantly related to customers’ BC. In addition, customers’ BT did not fully mediate employees’ BCBs and customers’ BC. This study could help hotel managers develop strategies to enhance customers’ BC. The study may also deepen understanding of the BCB concept in a hotel context as well as aid in the establishment of new links between internal and external customers of organizations.


Brand Citizenship Behavior, Brand Commitment, Hotels


Download data is not yet available.


Ashforth, B.E. and Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), pp 20-39.

Attallah, N.F. (2015). Evaluation of perceived service quality provided by tourism establishments in Egypt. Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 15(3), pp 149-160.

Bharadwaj, S.G., Varadarajan, P.R. and Fahy, J. (1993). Sustainable competitive advantage in service industries: A conceptual model and research propositions. The Journal of Marketing, 57(4). pp 83-99.

BNC Network. (2017). Egypt Tourism and Hospitality Market Snapshot 2017. Retrieved From: http://www.thebig5constructegypt.com/media/2012/egypt-tourism-and-hospitality-report.pdf

Boo, S., Busser, J. and Baloglu, S. (2009). A model of customer-based brand equity and its application to multiple destinations. Tourism Management, 30(2), pp 219-231.

Burmann, C. and Zeplin, S. (2005). Building brand commitment: A behavioural approach to internal brand management. Journal of Brand Management, 12(4), pp 279-300.

Burmann, C., Zeplin, S. and Riley, N. (2009). Key determinants of internal brand management success: An exploratory empirical analysis. Journal of Brand Management, 16(4), pp 264-284.

Chaudhuri, A. and Holbrook, M.B. (2002). Product-class effects on brand commitment and brand outcomes: The role of brand trust and brand affect. The Journal of Brand Management, 10(1), pp 33-58.

Chong, M. (2007). The role of internal communication and training in infusing corporate values and delivering brand promise: Singapore Airlines' experience. Corporate Reputation Review, 10(3), pp 201-212.

Colliers International. (2014). Cairo in focus. Hotels market snapshot, Egypt. Retrieved from: h t t p : / / w w w . c o l l i e r s . c o m / -/media/files/emea/uae/case-studies/egypt-hotels-market-snapshot-may-2014.pdf

De Chernatony, L. and Riley, F.D.O. (1999). Experts' views about defining services brands and the principles of services branding. Journal of Business Research, 46(2), pp 181-192.

Delgado-Ballester, E. and Munuera-Alemán, J. L. (2001). Brand Trust in the Context of Consumer Loyalty. European Journal of Marketing,35(11/12), pp 1238-1258.

DeSarbo, W.S. and Edwards, E.A. (1996). Typologies of compulsive buying behavior: A constrained clusterwise regression approach. The Journal of Consumer Psychology, 5(3), pp 231-262.

Dortok, A. (2006). A managerial look at the interaction between internal communication and corporate reputation. Corporate Reputation Review, 8(4), pp 322-338.

Eraqi, M.I. (2006). Tourism service quality (TourServQual) in Egypt: The viewpoints of external and internal customers. Benchmarking:An International Journal, 13(4), pp 469-492.

Erkmen, E. (2014). All Consumers Are Same for the Effect of Brand Citizenship Behaviors?: The Role of Nationality. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 6(3), pp 65-75.

Erkmen, E. and Hancer, M. (2015). Do your internal branding efforts measure up? Consumers' response to brand supporting behaviors of hospitality employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(5), pp 878-895.

Essawy, M. (2011). Egyptian hotel marketing managers' perceptions of the Internet's impact on marketing. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(3), pp 207-216.

Essawy, M. (2012). The implementation of relationship marketing by independent Egyptian hotels. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(4), pp 175-187.

Hafez, M.I.A.K., Sahn, M.F.E., and Farrag, D.A.R. (2013). The Effect of Egyptians' Money Attitudes on Compulsive Buying with the Role of Credit Card Use. A Multidisciplinary Journal of Global Macro Trends, 2(6), pp 73-88.

Hankinson, P. (2004). The internal brand in leading UK charities. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 13(2), pp 84-93.

Henkel, S., Tomczak, T., Heitmann, M. and Herrmann, A. (2007). Managing brand consistent employeebehaviour: Relevance and managerial control of behavioural branding. Journal of Product & BrandManagement, 16(5), pp 310-320.

Hennig-Thurau, T. (2004). Customer orientation of service employees: Its impact on customer satisfaction, commitment and retention. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(5), pp 460-478.

Kapferer, J.N. (2008). The New Strategic Brand Management:Advanced Insights and Strategic Thinking. Kogan page publishers. UK.

Kapferer, J.N. (2012), The New Strategic Brand Management: Advanced Insights and Strategic thThinking. 5 edition. Kogan page publishers. UK.

Keller, K.L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), pp 1-22.

Keller, K.L. (1998), Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. th4 Edition. Pearson. US.

Kim, D., Magnini, V.P. and Singal, M. (2011). The effects of customers' perceptions of brand personality in casual theme restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), pp 448-458.

Kim, H.B. and Kim, W.G. (2005). The relationship between brand equity and firms' performance in luxury hotels and chain restaurants. Tourism Management, 26(4), pp 549-560.

Kim, W.G., Jin-Sun, B. and Kim, H.J. (2008). Multidimensional customer-based brand equity and its consequences in midpriced hotels. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 32(2), pp 235-254.

Kimpakorn, N. and Tocquer, G. (2010). Service brand equity and employee brand commitment. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(5), pp 378-388.

King, C. and Grace, D. (2008). Internal Branding: Exploring the Employee's Perspective. Journal of Brand Management, 15(5), pp 358-372.

King, C. and Grace, D. (2010). Building and measuring employee-based brand equity”, European Journal of Marketing, 44(7/8), pp 938-971.

Lashley, C. and Lee-Ross, D. (2003), Organization behaviour for leisure services. Butterworth-Heinemann. Oxford. UK.

Lee, J.S. and Back, K.J. (2008). Attendee-based brand equity. Tourism Management, 29(2), pp 331-344.

Mattila, A.S. (2001). Emotional bonding and restaurant loyalty. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42(6), pp 73-79.

Mitchell, C. (2002). Selling the Brand Inside. Harvard Business Review, 80(1), pp 99-101.

Morgan, R.M. and Hunt, S.D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 58(3), pp 20-38.

Morhart, F.M., Herzog, W. and Tomczak, T. (2009). Brand-Specific Leadership: Turning Employees into Brand Champions. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), pp 122-142.

Nam, J., Ekinci, Y. and Whyatt, G. (2011). Brand equity, brand loyalty and consumer satisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), pp 1009-1030.

O'Neill, J.W. and Carlbäck, M. (2011). Do brands matter? A comparison of branded and independent hotels' performance during a full economic cycle. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(3), pp 515-521.

O'Neill, J.W. and Mattila, A.S. (2010). Hotel brand strategy. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(1), pp 27-34.

Papasolomou, I. and Vrontis, D. (2006). Using internal marketing to ignite the corporate brand: The case of the UK retail bank industry. Journal of Brand Management, 14(1/2), pp 177-195.

Piehler, R. (2011), Internal Brand Management: Theoretical Concept and Case Study-Based Evidence, Gabler, Wiesbaden. Cited in: Ravens, C. (2013), Internal brand management in an international context, Springer Science & Business Media. Germany.

Punjaisri, K. and Wilson, A. (2007). The role of internal branding in the delivery of employee brand promise. Journal of Brand Management, 15(1), pp 57-70.

Punjaisri, K., Wilson, A. and Evanschitzky, H. (2008). Exploring the influences of internal branding on employees' brand promise delivery: Implications for strengthening customer–brand relationships. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 7(4), pp 407-424.

Punjaisri, K., Wilson, A. and Evanschitzky, H. (2009). Internal branding to influence employees' brand promise delivery: a case study in Thailand. Journal ofServiceManagement,20(5), pp561-579.

Ravens, C. (2013), Internal Brand Management in an International Context, Springer Science & Business Media. Germany.

Roh, E.Y. and Choi, K. (2010). Efficiency comparison of multiple brands within the same franchise: Data envelopment analysis approach. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(1), pp 92-98.

Santos-Vijande, M.L., del Río-Lanza, A.B.,Suárez-Álvarez, L. and Díaz-Martín, A.M. (2013). The brand management system and service firm competitiveness. Journal of Business Research, 66(2), pp 148-157.

Selnes, F. (1998). Antecedents and consequences of trust and satisfaction in buyer-seller relationships. European Journal of Marketing, 32(3/4), pp 305-322.

Shaari, H., Salleh, S.M. and Hussin, Z. (2011). Exploring the Dimension of Internal Brand Citizenship Behavior in Malaysia: A Case of Northern Malaysia Hotel. World Review of Business Research, 1(1), pp 25-33.

Shaari, H., Salleh, S.M. and Hussin, Z. (2015). Employee Brand Citizenship Behavior: Front-Liner Versus Backstage Employee's Perspective. International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS), 22(1), pp 23-32.

Tsai, H., Cheung, C. and Lo, A. (2010). An exploratory study of the relationship between customer-based casino brand equity and firm performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(4), pp 754-757.

Verma, T. and Dhar, S. (2015), “Dimensions of Brand Citizenship Behaviour in Indian Context: An Empirical Analysis”, JIM QUEST, 11(2), pp 68-76.

World Travel & Tourism Council. (2016). Travel & Tourism: Economic Impact 2016 Egypt. Retrieved From: https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/countries-2016/egypt2016.pdf

Xie, L.S., Peng, J.M. and Huan, T.C. (2014). Crafting and testing a central precept in service-dominant logic: Hotel employees' brand-citizenship behavior and customers' brand trust. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 42, pp 1-8.

Xie, L.S., Peng, J.M. and Zhang, C.L. (2010). The Impact of Brand Citizenship Behavior (BCB) of Employees in Tourism Businesses on Customers' Brand Trust and Brand Commitment. Tourism Tribune, 11, pp 58-65.

Xiong, L., King, C. and Piehler, R. (2013). That's not my job: Exploring the employee perspective in the development of brand ambassadors. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35, pp 348-359.

Yang, J.T., Wan, C.S. and Wu, C.W. (2015). Effect of internal branding on employee brand commitment and behavior in hospitality. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 15(4), pp 267-280.




How to Cite

Hazem Ahmed Khairy, & Yee Ming Lee. (2018). ENHANCING CUSTOMERS’ BRAND COMMITMENT: A MULTIDIMENSIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF BRAND CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR IN EGYPTIAN HOTELS. International Journal on Recent Trends in Business and Tourism (IJRTBT), 2(1), 27-38. Retrieved from https://ejournal.lucp.net/index.php/ijrtbt/article/view/233