ATTITUDE OF PHYSICIAN TOWARDS GIFT ACCEPTANCE FROM THE REPRESENTATIVES OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY AND ITS IMPACT ON PRESCRIPTION PATTERN IN MALAYSIA
According to WHO, it was estimated that half of the drugs prescribed, dispensed and sold are done in an improper way. The physicians accept various types of gift from pharmaceutical companies. This can influence physicians’ prescribing pattern and result in early adoption to prescribe medications depending on promotional information. The effect of promotional activities especially gifts on the physicians' prescribing behavior was measured and the most effective promotional blend was identified. Promotional tools used by pharmaceutical companies were tested. The promotional tools which were more effective and influencing Malaysian physicians' counselling behavior were identified. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of gifts and promotion tools on the treatment pattern and the perception of health professionals regarding it in Malaysia. In this study, a clear impact of low cost and high cost gifts on the physician’s counselling behavior is found. It can also be concluded that physicians are not aware of the impact that industry’s marketing activities have on their behavior.
Keywords:Physician Prescription Behavior, Gifts, Pharmaceutical Marketing, Promotional Tools
Ahmad, M., Akhtar, N., Awan, M.H.A. and Murtaza, G. (2011). Ethical Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Marketing in Pakistan. Acta Bioethica, 17(2), pp 215-224.
Al-Areefi, M. A. and Hassali, M. A. (2013). The Role of Pharmaceutical Marketing and Other Factors in Prescribing Decisions: The Yemeni Experience. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 9(6), pp 981-988.
Arora, U. and Taneja, G. (2006). An Analytical Study of Physicians Behaviour Towards Marketing of Pharmaceutical Products. Indian Journal of Marketing, 36 (11), pp 10-13.
Bansal, R. and S. Das. (2005). Unethical Relationship between Doctors and Drugs Companies. Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine (JIAFM), 27(1), pp 40-42.
Chimonas, S., Brennan, T.A., Rothman, D.J. (2007). Physicians and Drug Representatives: Exploring the Dynamics of the Relationship. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(2), pp 184-190.
Doran, E., Kerridge, I., McNeill, P., and Henry, D. (2006). Empirical Uncertainty and Moral Contest: A Qualitative Analysis of the Relationship Between Medical Specialists and the Pharmaceutical Industry in Australia. Social Science & Medicine, 62(6), pp 1510-1519.
Duggan, M. and Goyal, A. (2012). Pharmaceutical patents and prices: a preliminary empirical assessment using data from India, No. 6063, Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank.
Gönül, F. F., Carter, F., Petrova, E. and Srinivasan, K. (2001). Promotion of Prescription Drugs and Its Impact on Physicians' Choice Behavior. Journal of Marketing, 65 (3), pp 79-90.
Grande, D. (2007). A National Survey of Physician-Industry Relationships. The New England Journal of Medicine, 357(5), pp 507-508.
Greene, J. A. (2007). Pharmaceutical Marketing Research and the Prescribing Physician. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146(10), pp 742-748.
Güldal, D. and S. Şmin (2000). The Influences of Drug Companies' Advertising Programs on Physicians. International Journal of Health Services, 30(3), pp 585-595.
Katz, D., Caplan, A.L. and Merz, J.F. (2010). All Gifts Large and Small: Toward an Understanding of the Ethics of Pharmaceutical Industry Gift-Giving. The American Journal of Bioethics, 3(3), pp 39-46.
Krejcie, R. V. and Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), pp 607-610.
Loh, L.C., Ong, H.T. and Quah, S.H. (2007). Impact of Various Continuing Medical Education Activities on Clinical Practice – A Survey of Malaysian Doctors on its Perceived Importance. Annals-Academy of Medicine Singapore, 36(4), pp 281-284.
Lurie, N., Rich, E.C., Simpson, D.E., Meyer, J., Schiedermayer, D.L., Goodman, J.L., and McKinney, W.P. (1990). Pharmaceutical Representatives in Academic Medical Centers. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 5(3), pp 240-243.
Madhavan, S., Amonkar, M.M., Elliott, D., Burke, K. and Gore, P. (1997). The gift relationship between pharmaceutical companies and physicians: an exploratory survey of physicians. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 22(3), pp 207–218.
McKinney, W.P., Schiedermayer, D.L., Lurie, N., Simpson, D.E., Goodman, J.L., and Rich, E.C. (1990). Attitudes of Internal Medicine Faculty and Residents Toward Professional Interaction with Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives. JAMA, 264(13), pp 1693–1697.
Mikhael, E. M., Alhilali, D. N., Mutawalli, B.Z.A. and Toma, N.M. (2014). The Reliabilty and Accuracy of Medical and Pharmaceutical Information that were Given by Drug Companies Through Medical Representatives to Iraqi Physicians. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(1), pp 627-630.
Morgan, M., Dana, J., Loewenstein, G., Zinberg, S. and Schulkin, J. (2006). Interactions of Doctors with the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Medical Ethics, 32(10), pp 559-563.
Oshikoya, K. A., Oreagba, I and Adeyemi, O. (2011). Sources of drug information and their influence on the prescribing behaviour of doctors in a teaching hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. The Pan African Medical Journal, 9(13), pp 1-9.
Othman, N., Vitry, A.I., Roughead, E.E., Ismail, S.B. and Omar, K. (2015). Doctors' Views on the Quality of Claims Provided by Pharmaceutical Representatives: A Comparative Study in Malaysia and Australia. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 10(4), pp 471-480.
Parmar, V. and T. Jalees (2004). Pharmaceutical Industry in Hyderabad, Unethical Practices in Drug Promotion, Independent Study for MS. Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science & Technology.
Salkind, N. J. and Rainwater, T. (2003). Exploring Research. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Sandberg, W. S., Carlos, R., Sandberg, E.H. and Roizen, M.F. (1997). The Effect of Educational Gifts from Pharmaceutical Firms on Medical Students' Recall of Company Names or Products. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 72(10), pp 916-918.
Shamimulhaq, S., Ahmed, R. R., Ahmad, N. and Parmar, V. (2014). Factors Influencing Prescription Behavior of Physicians. The Pharma Innovation, 3(5), pp 30-35.
Siddiqi, A., Hussain, S., Parveen, G., Malik, F., Yasin, F., Akram, T.S., Hameed, A., Riaz, H., Shah, P.A. and Saeed, T. (2011). Relevant Influence of Promotional Tools by Pharmaceutical Industry on Prescribing Behaviors of Doctors: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Pakistan. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5(13), pp 1623-1632.
Steinman, M. A., Shlipak, M. G., and McPhee, S. J. (2001). Of principles and pens: Attitudes and practices of medicine housestaff toward pharmaceutical industry promotions. American Journal of Medicine, 110(7), 551–557.
Wazana, A. (2000). Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry: Is a gift ever just a gift?" JAMA, 283(3), pp 373-380.
World Health Organization and Health Action International. (2008). Measuring Medicine Prices, Availability, Affordability and Price Components. 2nd edition. HAI Global. US.
Zahrani, H. S. A. (2014). The Impact of Pharmaceutical Promotions on Primary Health Care Physician's Prescribing Behaviour In KAMC In Central Region. International Journal of Medicine and Public Health,3(3), pp 358-361.
Ziegler, M.G., Lew, P. and Singer, B.C. (1995). The Accuracy of Drug Information from Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives. JAMA, 273(16), pp 1296-1298.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal on Recent Trends in Business and Tourism (IJRTBT)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.