• Rajiv Ranjan Singh Electronics & Communication Engineering, School of Engineering, Presidency University, India
  • Swapan Kumar Majumdar Operations and Information Systems, School of Management, Presidency University, India


Technology is the biggest enabler of change. The technology that is changing our lifestyle is Internet of Things (IoT) and Wearable Internet of Things (WIoT). The fusion of electronics, communication and internet technology have given a new prospect for WIoT. Technological innovation and social engineering are two different things. The enabling power of WIoT is infinite; the progress of adoption of WIoT is relatively slow. WIoT embodies the necessary aspects of sensing, processing and communicating. In this paper we discuss the opportunities and challenges from the developer’s and digital entrepreneur’s perspective, which influence the business models for WIoT. In the coming years, digital entrepreneurs targeting wearable device markets must focus on innovation, which may lead to the acceptability of the product by a larger section of society, from children to elderly. Additionally, they must strategize in such a way that not only they overcome the fierce competitors but also the legal hurdles, rapidly changing customer demands and technological innovations. Finally, we suggest a business model for budding entrepreneurs to succeed in the WIoT market. This paper recommends the strategies, business models, and action plans to overcome the barriers of WIoT.


Wearable Devices, Internet of Things (IoT), Digital Entrepreneurship, Business Models, Innovation


Download data is not yet available.


Acheampong, F. & Vimarlund, V. (2015). Business Models for Telemedicine Services: A Literature Review. Health Systems, 4(3), pp 189-203. DOI: 10.1057/hs.2014.20

Alkhatib, H., Faraboschi, P., Frachtenberg, E., Kasahara, H., Lange, D., Laplante, P., Merchant, A., Milojicic, D. & Schwan, K., (2015). What will 2022 look like? The IEEE CS 2022 Report. Computer, 48(3), pp 68-76.

Almeida, R.M.R.P. (2015). Characterization of Business Models in the Medical Devices Industry-The Case for Wearable Technologies. Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Portugal. Retrieved From: https://core.ac.uk/download/ pdf/ 143399223.pdf

Anliker, U., Beutel, J., Dyer, M., Enzler, R., Lukowicz, P., Thiele, L. & Troster, G. (2004). A systematic approach to the design of distributed wearable systems. Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Transactions on Computers, 53(8), pp 1017-1033. DOI: 10.1109/TC.2004.36.

Arias, O., Wurm, J., Hoang, K. & Jin, Y. (2015). Privacy and Security in Internet of Things and Wearable Devices. IEEE Transactions on Multi-Scale Computing Systems, 1(2), pp 99-109. DOI: 10.1109/TMSCS.2015.2498605.

Atzori, L., Iera, A. & Morabito, G. (2010). The Internet of Things: A Survey. Computer Networks, 54(15), pp 2787-2805. DOI: 10.1016/j.comnet.2010. 05.010.

Blank, S. (2013). Why the Lean Start-Up Changes Everything? Harvard Business Review, 91(5), pp 63-72.

Borgia, E. (2014). The Internet of Things vision: Key features, applications and open issues. Computer Communications, 54, pp 1-31. DOI: 10.1016/j. comcom.2014.09.008.

Chan, M., Estève, D., Fourniols, J.Y., Escriba, C. & Campo, E. (2012). Smart Wearable Systems: Current Status and Future Challenges. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 56(3), pp 137-156. DOI: 10.1016/j.artmed.2012.09.003.

Chesbrough, H. & Rosenbloom, R.S., (2002). The Role of the Business Model in Capturing Value from Innovation: Evidence from Xerox Corporation's Technology Spin‐Off Companies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(3), pp 529-555. DOI: 10.1093/icc/11.3.529.

Dijkman, R.M., Sprenkels, B., Peeters, T. & Janssen, A., (2015). Business Models for the Internet of Things. International Journal of Information Management, 35(6), pp 672-678.

Fichman, R.G., Dos Santos, B.L. & Zheng, Z. (2014). Digital Innovation as a Fundamental and Powerful Concept in the Information Systems Curriculum. Management Information Systems (MIS) Quarterly, 38(2), pp 329-353. DOI: 10.25300/MISQ/ 2014/38.2.01.

Fletcher, R.R., Poh, M.Z. & Eydgahi, H. (2010). Wearable Sensors: Opportunities and Challenges for Low-Cost Health Care. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, pp 1763-1766. Retrieved From: http://alumni.media. mit.edu/~zher/papers/Fletcher-etal-EMB C2010. pdf.

Fotiadis, D.I., Glaros, C. & Likas, A. (2006). Wearable Medical Devices. Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering. pp 3816–3827. DOI: 10.1002/9780471740360.ebs1326.

Gage, D. (2012). The Venture Capital Secret: 3 Out of 4 Start-Ups Fail. The Wall Street. Retrieved From: https://www.wsj.com/articles/ Sb100008723963 90 443720204578004980476429190.

Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S. & Palaniswami, M. (2013). Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29(2013), pp1645-1660.

Healey, J.A. & Picard, R.W. (2005). Detecting Stress during Real-World Driving Tasks using Physiological Sensors. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 6(2), pp 156-166.

Hiremath, S., Yang, G. & Mankodiya, K. (2014). Wearable Internet of Things: Concept, Architectural

Components and Promises for Person-Centered Healthcare. 2014 4th International Conference on Wireless Mobile Communication and Healthcare - Transforming Healthcare Through Innovations in M o b ile a n d Wireless Technologies (MOBIHEALTH). DOI: 10.1109/ MOBIHEALTH. 2014. 7015971.

Katsis, C.D., Katertsidis, N., Ganiatsas, G. & Fotiadis, D.I. (2008). Toward Emotion Recognition in Car-Racing Drivers: A Biosignal Processing Approach. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part A: Systems and Humans, 38(3), pp 502-512.

Lyons, K. & Profita, H. (2014). The Multiple Dispositions of On-Body and Wearable Devices. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Pervasive Computing, 13(4), pp 24-31. DOI: 10.1109/MPRV.2014.79.

Mann, S. (2001). Wearable Computing: Towards Humanistic Intelligence. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 16(3), pp 10-15.

Miorandi, D., Sicari, S., De Pellegrini, F. & Chlamtac, I. (2012). Internet of Things: Vision, Applications and Research Challenges. Ad hoc networks, 10(7), pp 1497-1516.

Motti, V.G. & Caine, K. (2014). Human Factors Considerations in the Design of Wearable Devices. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, SAGE Publications, 58(1), pp 1820-1824. DOI: 10.1177/ 1541931214581381.

Onar, S.C. & Ustundag, A., (2018). Smart and Connected Product Business Models. In Industry 4.0: Managing the Digital Transformation, Springer, Cham., Switzerland. pp 25-41. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-57870-5_2.

Osterwalder, A. (2004) The Business Model Ontology—A Proposition in a Design Science Approach. PhD Thesis, University of Lausanne, Switzerland. Retrieved From: http://www. hec. unil.ch/aosterwa/PhD/Osterwalder_PhD_BM_Ontology.pdf.

Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y. & Tucci, C.L. (2005). Clarifying Business Models: Origins, Present, and Future of the Concept. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 16(1), pp 1-25.

Park, S., Chung, K. & Jayaraman, S., (2015). Chapter 1 . 1 - Wearables: Fundamentals, Advancements and a Roadmap for the Future. Wearable Sensors, pp 1–23.

Patel, M., Lal, S.K.L., Kavanagh, D. & Rossiter, P. (2011). Applying Neural Network Analysis on Heart Rate Variability Data to Assess Driver Fatigue. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(6), pp 7235-7242. DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2010.12.028.

Pisano, G.P. (2015). You Need an Innovation Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 93(6), pp 44-54.

Porter, M.E. & Heppelmann, J.E. (2015). How Smart, Connected Products are Transforming Companies. Harvard Business Review, 93(10), pp 96-114.

PricewaterhouseCoopers, B.V. (2014). Consumer Intelligence Series: The Wearable Future. Retrieved From: https://www.pwc.com/us/en/ industries/consumer-markets/library/retail-consumter-cis-wearable-future.html.

Pyattaev, A., Johnsson, K., Andreev, S. & Koucheryavy, Y. (2015). Communication Challenges in High-Density Deployments of Wearable Wireless Devices. Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Wireless Communications, 22(1), pp 12-18. DOI: 10.1109/MWC.2015.7054714.

Sheth, A. (2016). Internet of Things to Smart IoT through Semantic, Cognitive, and Perceptual Computing. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 31(2), pp 108-112.

Shih, P.C., Han, K., Poole, E.S., Rosson, M.B. & Carroll, J.M. (2015). Use and Adoption Challenges of Wearable Activity Trackers. IConference 2015 Proceedings. March 24–27 2015; Newport Beach, CA. Retrieved From: file:///C:/Users/LUC /Desktop/Shih-FitBit-iConf15.pdf.

Singh, R.R., Conjeti, S. & Banerjee, R. (2013). A comparative evaluation of neural network classifiers for stress level analysis of automotive drivers using physiological signals. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, 8(6), pp 740-754.

Starner, T. (2014). How Wearables Worked their Way into the Mainstream. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 13(4), pp 10-15. DOI: 10.1109/MPRV.2014.66.

Sultan, N. (2015). Reflective thoughts on the potential and challenges of wearable technology for healthcare provision and medical education. International Journal of Information Management, 35(5), pp 521-526. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt. 2015.04.010.

Tan, C., Kulkarni, A., Venkataramani, V., Karunaratne, M., Mitra, T. & Peh, L.S. (2017). LOCUS: Low-Power Customizable Many-Core Architecture for Wearables. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), 17(1), pages 16. DOI: 10.1145/2968455.2968506.

Venugopal, K. & Heath, R.W. (2016). Millimeter Wave Networked Wearables in Dense Indoor Environments. Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Access, 4, pp 1205-1221. DOI:10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2542478.

Wei, J. (2014). How Wearables Intersect with the Cloud and the Internet of Things: Considerations for the developers of wearables. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 3(3), pp 53-56.

Wright, R. & Keith, L. (2014). Wearable Technology: If the Tech Fits, Wear It. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 11(4), pp 204-216. DOI: 10.1080/15424065.2014.969051.

Yoo, Y., Henfridsson, O. & Lyytinen, K. (2010). Research Commentary—The New Organizing Logic of Digital Innovation: An Agenda for Information Systems Research. Information Systems Research, 21(4), pp 724-735. DOI: 10.1287/isre.1100.0322




How to Cite

Rajiv Ranjan Singh, & Swapan Kumar Majumdar. (2018). WEARABLE INTERNET OF THINGS (WIoT): OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES AND BUSINESS MODELS FOR DIGITAL ENTREPRENEURS. International Journal on Recent Trends in Business and Tourism (IJRTBT), 2(4), 43-52. Retrieved from https://ejournal.lucp.net/index.php/ijrtbt/article/view/175