A Review of Microgreens In Southeast Asia: Sustainable Agriculture, Phytochemicals, and Biological Activities


  • Mr. Amil Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Dr. Hazwani Centre of Foundation Studies in Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Dr. Tan Faculty of Applied Science, Lincoln University College, Malaysia
  • Dr. Sim Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia




Microgreens are edible vegetable and herb seedlings with only 1–3 inches. Aside from their remarkable nutritional content, they can be grown easily in the city, and hence, they are acclaimed as emerging functional food. This review aimed to provide a systemic insight into the sustainable agriculture, phytochemicals, and biological activities of microgreens in Southeast Asia. The study was conducted by collecting the experimental findings from scientific articles that were published in reputed journals from the year 2000 to 2021 using electronic databases. The comparative analyses were conducted wherever appropriate. Several species of microgreens from the Brassicaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, and Amaranthaceae families were discussed. In the first instance, various methods for cultivating microgreens were explained, followed by the summarisation of phytochemicals (e.g., terpenes, polyphenols, and sulfur-containing compounds) present in microgreens. A comparison of phytochemical composition between microgreens and their mature counterparts (macrogreens) was conducted. Moreover, two well-known biological activities of microgreens, i.e., antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, were outlined, together with their experimental data. Additionally, the effects of human health upon the consumption of microgreens were also elaborated.


biological activities, macronutrients, microgreens, micronutrients, phytochemicals, sustainable agriculture

Author Biographies

Mr. Amil, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

First author

Dr. Tan, Faculty of Applied Science, Lincoln University College, Malaysia

Co-corresponding author

Dr. Sim, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Co-corresponding author


Abdullahi, S. A., Unyah, N. Z., Nordin, N., Basir, R., Nasir, W. M., Alapid, A. A., Hassan, Y., Mustapha, T., & Majid, R. A. (2020). Phytochemicals and potential therapeutic targets on Toxoplasma gondii parasite. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, 20(9), 739-753.

Ahanger, M. A., Tomar, N. S., Tittal, M., Argal, S., & Agarwal, R. M. (2017). Plant growth under water/salt stress: ROS production; Antioxidants and significance of added potassium under such conditions. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 23(4), 731-744.

Ahmed, M. (2018). In vitro investigations of cumin oil as antioxidants agent on fresh and fried edible oil faroug bakheit. Journal of Medical Care Research and Review, 1(1), 1-13.

Akbarirad, H. Gohari, A. A., Kazemeini, S. M., & Mousavi, K. A. (2016). An overview on some of important sources of natural antioxidants. International Food Research Journal, 23(3), 928-933.

Al-Dashti, Y. A., Holt, R. R., Stebbins, C. L., Keen, C. L., & Hackman, R. M. (2018). Dietary flavanols: A review of select effects on vascular function, blood pressure, and exercise performance. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 37(7), 553-567.

Alegbeleye, O., & Sant’Ana, A. S. (2022). Microbiological quality of irrigation water for cultivation of fruits and vegetables: An overview of available guidelines, water testing strategies and some factors that influence compliance. Environmental Research, 114771-114795.

Alejandro, S., Höller, S., Meier, B., & Peiter, E. (2020). Manganese in plants: From acquisition to subcellular allocation. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11(300), 1-23.

Ali, S., Nawaz, A., Naz, S., Ejaz, S., Hussain, S., & Anwar, R. (2022). Decontamination of microgreens. In Microbial Decontamination of Food (pp. 125-143). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.

Aliyas, I. M., Ismail, E. Y., & Alhadeedy, M. A. H. (2018). Evaluation of applications of sustainable agricultural development in Iraq. SocioEconomic Challenges, 2(2),75-80.

Alrifai, O., Hao, X., Marcone, M. F., & Tsao, R. (2019). Current review of the modulatory effects of LED lights on photosynthesis of secondary metabolites and future perspectives of microgreen vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(22), 6075-6090.

Amaral, V. A., Alves, T. R., de Souza, J. F., Batain, F., de Moura Crescencio, K. M., Soeiro, V. S., de Barros, C. T., & Chaud, M. V. (2021). Phenolic compounds from Psidium guajava (Linn.) leaves: Effect of the extraction-assisted method upon total phenolics content and antioxidant activity. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 11(2), 9346-9357.

Andrés, Z., Pérez-Hormaeche, J., Leidi, E. O., Schlücking, K., Steinhorst, L., McLachlan, D. H., Schumacher, K., Hetherington, A. M., Kudla, J., Cubero, B., & Pardo, J. M. (2014). Control of vacuolar dynamics and regulation of stomatal aperture by tonoplast potassium uptake. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(17), 1806-1814.

Arshad, M. S., & Batool, S. A. (2017). Natural antimicrobials, their sources and food safety. Food Additives, 2017, 88-89.

Artmann, M., Breuste, J., Breuste, J., Artmann, M., Liu, Y., Breuste, J., ... & Dilini, M. M. G. S. (2020). Urban agriculture—more than food production. In Making Green Cities: Concepts, Challenges and Practice (pp. 75-176). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Artmann, M., & Sartison, K. (2018). The role of urban agriculture as a nature-based solution: A review for developing a systemic assessment framework. Sustainability, 10(6), 1937-1969.

Aschilean, I., Rasoi, G., Raboaca, M. S., Filote, C., & Culcer, M. (2018). Design and concept of an energy system based on renewable sources for greenhouse sustainable agriculture. Energies, 11(5), 1201-1213.

Asili, J., Sahebkar, A., Bazzaz, B. S. F., Sharifi, S., & Iranshahi, M. (2009). Identification of essential oil components of Ferula badrakema fruits by GC-MS and 13C-NMR methods and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 12(1), 7-15.

Astee, L. Y., & Kishnani, N. T. (2010). Building integrated agriculture: Utilising rooftops for sustainable food crop cultivation in Singapore. Journal of Green Building, 5(2), 105-113.

Atasoy, A. D., Yesilnacar, M. I., & Atasoy, A. F. (2019). Essential element contents of Turkish black tea. In Non-alcoholic Beverages (pp. 63-72). Woodhead Publishing.

Augusti, K. T., Jose, R., Sajitha, G. R., & Augustine, P. (2012). A rethinking on the benefits and drawbacks of common antioxidants and a proposal to look for the antioxidants in allium products as ideal agents: A review. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 27(1), 6-20.

Azunre, G. A., Amponsah, O., Peprah, C., Takyi, S. A., & Braimah, I. (2019). A review of the role of urban agriculture in the sustainable city discourse. Cities, 93, 104-119.

Baenas, N., & Wagner, A. E. (2019). Pharmacoepigenetics of Brassica-derived compounds. In Pharmacoepigenetics (pp. 847-857). Academic Press.

Baenas, N., Gómez-Jodar, I., Moreno, D. A., García-Viguera, C., & Periago, P. M. (2017). Broccoli and radish sprouts are safe and rich in bioactive phytochemicals. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 127, 60-67.

Bardaweel, S. K., Gul, M., Alzweiri, M., Ishaqat, A., ALSalamat, H. A., & Bashatwah, R. M. (2018). Reactive oxygen species: The dual role in physiological and pathological conditions of the human body. The Eurasian Journal of Medicine, 50(3), 193–201.

Barrios-González, J. (2018). Secondary metabolites production: Physiological advantages in solid-state fermentation. Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 1, 257-283.

Belbase, P., & Bc, L. (2020). Effects of different fertilizers on yield and vitamin C content of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) ̶ A review. Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, 6(4), 37-46.

Bell, L., & Wagstaff, C. (2019). Rocket science: A review of phytochemical & health-related research in Eruca & Diplotaxis species. Food Chemistry: X, 1(100002), 1-12.

Benke, K., & Tomkins, B. (2017). Future food-production systems: vertical farming and controlled-environment agriculture. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 13(1), 13-26.

Bento-Silva, A., Koistinen, V. M., Mena, P., Bronze, M. R., Hanhineva, K., Sahlstrøm, S., Kitrytė, V., Moco, S., & Aura, A. M. (2020). Factors affecting intake, metabolism and health benefits of phenolic acids: Do we understand individual variability?. European Journal of Nutrition, 59(4), 1275-1293.

Bhatt, P., & Sharma, S. (2018). Microgreens: A Nutrient rich crop that can diversify food system. International Journal of Pure Applied Bioscience, 6, 182-186.

Blažević, I., Montaut, S., Burčul, F., Olsen, C. E., Burow, M., Rollin, P., & Agerbirk, N. (2020). Glucosinolate structural diversity, identification, chemical synthesis and metabolism in plants. Phytochemistry, 169(112100), 1-57.

Broholm, S. K., Teeri, T. H., & Elomaa, P. (2014). Chapter ten - Molecular control of inflorescence development in Asteraceae. Advances in Botanical Research, 72, 297-333.

Bromand Sivieri, M., Heydari, M., Gholami, A., & Ghorbani, H. (2020). Effects of biofertilizers and foliar application of iron oxide nanoparticle on grain yield and some physiological characteristics of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 51(4), 73-83.

Brown, P. D., Tokuhisa, J. G., Reichelt, M., & Gershenzon, J. (2003). Variation of glucosinolate accumulation among different organs and developmental stages of Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry, 62(3), 471-481.

Buehler, D., & Junge, R. (2016). Global trends and current status of commercial urban rooftop farming. Sustainability, 8(11), 1108-1114.

Calheiros, C. S., & Stefanakis, A. I. (2021). Green roofs towards circular and resilient cities. Circular Economy and Sustainability, 1(1), 395-411.

Cantwell, M., Suslow, T., & Kader, A. A. (Ed.). (2002). Postharvest handling systems: Minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, 3311, 445-463.

Caracciolo, F., El-Nakhel, C., Raimondo, M., Kyriacou, M. C., Cembalo, L., De Pascale, S., & Rouphael, Y. (2020). Sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of 12 microgreens species. Agronomy, 10(7), 1043-1058.

Cartea, M. E., Francisco, M., Soengas, P., & Velasco, P. (2011). Phenolic compounds in Brassica vegetables. Molecules, 16(1), 251-280.

Charlebois, S. (2018). Can greenbelt microgreens expand its model? A discussion on the future of microgreens. Journal of Agricultural Studies, 6(2), 17-34.

Chartzoulakis, K., & Bertaki, M. (2015). Sustainable water management in agriculture under climate change. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 4, 88-98.

Chen, B., He, Y., Xiao, Y., Guo, D., Liu, P., He, Y., Sun, Q., Jiang, P., Liu, Z., & Liu, Q. (2020). Heated fennel therapy promotes the recovery of gastrointestinal function in patients after complex abdominal surgery: A single-center prospective randomized controlled trial in China. Surgery, 168(5), 793-799.

Chen, H., Tong, X., Tan, L., & Kong, L. (2020). Consumers’ acceptability and perceptions toward the consumption of hydroponically and soil grown broccoli microgreens. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 2, 100051-100057.

Chen, C. H., Yin, H. B., & Patel, J. (2023). Influence of contamination source and cultivation matrix on survival of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella enterica on daikon microgreens. LWT, 185, 115165-115171.

Chen, H., Yuan, J., Hao, J., Wen, Y., Lv, Y., Chen, L., & Yang, X. (2019). α-Humulene inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through the inhibition of Akt signaling. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 134, 110830-110841.

Chen, Z. C., Peng, W. T., Li, J., & Liao, H. (2018). Functional dissection and transport mechanism of magnesium in plants. In Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology (pp. 142-152). Academic Press.

Chester, K. Y. (2019). The eminence organics guide to microgreens & their health benefits. Eminence Organic Skincare. Retrieved March 3, 2021, from https://eminenceorganics.com/ca/blog/2017/04/20/eminence-organics-guide-microgreens-their-health-benefits/.

Choe, U., Yu, L. L., & Wang, T. T. (2018). The science behind microgreens as an exciting new food for the 21st century. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 66(44), 11519-11530.

Davison, A. W., & Cape, J. N. (2003). Atmospheric nitrogen compounds—Issues related to agricultural systems. Environment International, 29(2–3), 181–187.

Davoodi, S. H., Biyabani, A., Rahemi, K. A., Modares, S. A., Gholamalipour, A. E., & Zaree, M. (2020). Effect of iron and zinc nano chelates on yield and yield components of black cumin medicinal plant (Nigella sativa L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 18(3), 267-278.

Dayangku, S. (2020). These tiny, cute greens might be the only thing that'll make you fussy faces eat vege. Vulcan Post. Retrieved on May 16, 2021, from https://vulcanpost.com/703837/tiny-greens-microgreens-online-delivery-klang-valley/.

De Guzman, C. C. (2017). Urban agriculture in the Philippines: Initiatives, practices, significance, and threats. In Sustainable Landscape Planning in Selected Urban Regions (pp. 187-197). Springer, Tokyo.

de Valença, A. W. Bake, A., Brouwer, I. D. & Giller, K. E. (2017). Agronomic biofortification of crops to fight hidden hunger in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Food Security, 12, 8-14.

Deelstra, T., & Girardet, H. (2000). Urban agriculture and sustainable cities. Growing Cities, Growing Food, 1, 43-66.

Delian, E., Chira, A., Bădulescu, L., & Chira, L. (2015). Insights into microgreens physiology. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 59, 447-454.

Dhakal, R. S., Syme, G., Andre, E., & Sabato, C. (2015). Sustainable water management for urban agriculture, gardens and public open space irrigation: A case study in Perth. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 676-685.

Ding, H., Fu, T. J., & Smith, M. A. (2013). Microbial contamination in sprouts: How effective is seed disinfection treatment?. Journal of Food Science, 78(4), 595-501.

Dohm, J. C., Minoche, A. E., Holtgräwe, D., Capella-Gutiérrez, S., Zakrzewski, F., Tafer, H., Rupp, O., Sörensen, T. R., Stracke, R., Reinhardt, R., Goesmann, A., Kraft, T., Schulz, B., Stadler, P. F., Schmidt, T., Gabaldón, T., Lehrach, H., Weisshaar, B., & Himmelbauer, H. (2014). The genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Nature, 505(7484), 546-549.

Doran, T., & Pisa, K. (2019). This farm is growing food deep beneath south korean mountains. CNN World. Retrieved May 17, 2021, from https://www.agritecture.com/blog/2019/12/16/abandoned-tunnel-in-south-korea-converted-into-vertical-farm/.

Dozier, A. Q., Arabi, M., Wostoupal, B. C., Goemans, C. G., Zhang, Y., & Paustian, K. (2017). Declining agricultural production in rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions: Policy tradeoffs and sustainability indicators. Environmental Research Letters, 12(8), 85005-85014.

El-Nakhel, C., Pannico, A., Graziani, G., Kyriacou, M. C., Gaspari, A., Ritieni, A., Pascale, S. D., & Rouphael, Y. (2021). Nutrient supplementation configures the bioactive profile and production characteristics of three Brassica microgreens species grown in peat-based media. Agronomy, 11(2), 346-361.

Elmogahzy, Y. (2019). Finished fibrous assemblies. Engineering Textiles. Retrieved May 28, 2021, from https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102488-1.00011-3/.

Farooq, M., Rehman, A., & Pisante, M. (2019). Sustainable agriculture and food security. In Innovations in Sustainable Agriculture (pp. 3-24). Springer, Cham.

Fidler, J., Żyła, N., & Babula-Skowrońska, D. (2021). Impact of the Brassica oleracea genome on breeding and crop improvement. The Brassica oleracea Genome, 10, 107-126.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2017). The state of food security and nutrition in the world. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Fuente, B. D. L., López-García, G., Máñez, V., Alegría, A., Barberá, R., & Cilla, A. (2020). Antiproliferative effect of bioaccessible fractions of four Brassicaceae microgreens on human colon cancer cells linked to their phytochemical composition. Antioxidants, 9(5), 368-382.

Fuente, B. D. L., López-García, G., Máñez, V., Alegría, A., Barberá, R., & Cilla, A. (2019). Evaluation of the bioaccessibility of antioxidant bioactive compounds and minerals of four genotypes of Brassicaceae microgreens. Foods, 8(7), 250-265.

Gao, T., Yao, H., Song, J., Zhu, Y., Liu, C., & Chen, S. (2010). evaluating the feasibility of using candidate dna barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10(1), 1-7.

Gerster-Bentaya, M. (2013). Nutrition-sensitive urban agriculture. Food Security, 5, 723-737.

Ghoora, M. D., Babu, D. R., & Srividya, N. (2020). Nutrient composition, oxalate content and nutritional ranking of ten culinary microgreens. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 91, 103495-103505.

Gioia, F. D. & Santamaria, P. (2015). Microgreens: novel, fresh and functional food to explore all the value of biodiversity. South African Journal of Botany, 106, 1-118.

GlobeNewswire. (2020). United States microgreens market - Growth, trends and forecast (2020-2025). Intrado. Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/07/02/2057048/0/en/United-States-Microgreens-Market-Growth-Trends-and-Forecast-2020-2025.html/.

Gómez, C., Currey, C. J., Dickson, R. W., Kim, H. J., Hernández, R., Sabeh, N. C., Raudales, R. E., Brumfield, R. G., Laury-Shaw, A., Wilke, A. K., Lopez, R. G., & Burnett, S. E. (2019). Controlled environment food production for urban agriculture. Horticultural Science, 54(9), 1448-1458.

Granzow, M., & Jones, K. E. (2020). Urban agriculture in the making or gardening as epistemology. Local Environment, 25(5), 381-396.

Guthrie, S., Giles, S., Dunkerley, F., Tabaqchali, H., Harshfield, A., Ioppolo, B., & Manville, C. (2018). The impact of ammonia emissions from agriculture on biodiversity. RAND Corporation and The Royal Society. Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Guzman, P. L. E., Zamora, O. B., & Bernardo, D. F. H. (2015). Diversified and integrated farming systems (DIFS): Philippines experiences for improved livelihood and nutrition. Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture, 10(1), 19-33.

Gyawali, R., & Ibrahim, S. A. (2014). Natural products as antimicrobial agents. Food Control, 46, 412-429.

Haldar, K., Kujawa-Roeleveld, K., Schoenmakers, M., Datta, D. K., Rijnaarts, H., & Vos, J. (2021). Institutional challenges and stakeholder perception towards planned water reuse in peri-urban agriculture of the Bengal delta. Journal of Environmental Management, 283, 111974-111984.

Halloran, A., & Magid, J. (2013). The role of local government in promoting sustainable urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen, Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography, 113(2), 121-132.

Ham, J., Lim, W., Park, S., Bae, H., You, S., & Song, G. (2019). Synthetic phenolic antioxidant propyl gallate induces male infertility through disruption of calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. Environmental Pollution, 248, 845-856

Heywood, V. H., Brummitt, R. K., Culham, A., & Seberg, O. (2007). Amaranthaceae. In Flowering Families of the World (pp. 28-29). New York, Firefly Books.

Hodgson, K., Campbell, M.C., & Bailkey, M. (2011). Urban agriculture: Growing healthy, sustainable places. APA Planning Advisory Service Reports. 1-145.

Houessou, M. D., van de Louw, M., & Sonneveld, B. G. (2020). What constraints the expansion of urban agriculture in Benin?. Sustainability, 12(14), 5774-5790.

Huang, H., Jiang, X., Xiao, Z., Yu, L., Pham, Q., Sun, J., Chen, P., Yokoyama, W., Yu, L. L., Luo, Y. S., & Wang, T. T. Y. (2016). Red cabbage microgreens lower circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines in mice fed a high-fat diet. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64(48), 9161-9171.

Iamonico, D. (2020). Nomenclature survey of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae s.s.). About Amaranthus polygonoides s.l. and A. anderssonii, two related taxa described from the tropical regions of America with notes on their taxonomy. Acta Botánica Mexicana, 127(1687), 1-15.

Irga, P. J., Braun, J. T., Douglas, A. N. J., Pettit, T., Fujiwara, S., Burchett, M. D., & Torpy, F. R. (2017). The distribution of green walls and green roofs throughout Australia: Do policy instruments influence the frequency of projects?. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 24, 164-174.

Islam, R. & Siwar, C. (2012). The analysis of urban agriculture development in Malaysia. Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(3), 1068-1078.

Jain, A., Sharma, G., Kushwah, V., Ghoshal, G., Jain, A., Singh, B., Shivhare, U. S., & Katare, O. P. (2018). Beta carotene-loaded zein nanoparticles to improve the biopharmaceutical attributes and to abolish the toxicity of methotrexate: A Preclinical study for breast cancer. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology, 46(1), 402-412.

Jeon, J., Kim, J. K., Kim, H., Kim, Y. J., Park, Y. J., Kim, S. J., Kim, C., & Park, S. U. (2018). Transcriptome analysis and metabolic profiling of green and red kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) seedlings. Food Chemistry, 241, 7-13.

Jha, Y., & Subramanian, R. B. (2016). Regulation of plant physiology and antioxidant enzymes for alleviating salinity stress by potassium-mobilizing bacteria. In Potassium Solubilizing Microorganisms for Sustainable Agriculture (pp. 149-162). Springer, New Delhi.

Johra, F. T., Bepari, A. K., Bristy, A. T., & Reza, H. M. (2020). A mechanistic review of β-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin in eye health and disease. Antioxidants, 9(11), 1046-1067.

Jonck, A. V., Ribeiro, J. M. P., Berchin, I. I., Perini, F. C., & de Andrade, J. B. S. O. (2018). Urban agriculture practices as initiatives for mitigation and adaptation to climate change: possibilities for urban farms in a South American city. In Theory and Practice of Climate Adaptation (pp. 493-506). Springer, Cham.

Kandoliya, R. U., Sakarvadiya, H. L., & Kunjadia, B. B. (2018). effect of zinc and iron application on leaf chlorophyll, carotenoid, grain yield and quality of wheat in calcareous soil of Saurashtra region. International Journal of Chemical Studies, 6(4), 2092-2095.

Kapil, S. (2019). Urbanisation to cause huge loss of prime farmland: UNCCD. DownToEarth. Retrieved May 17, 2021, from https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/urbanisation-to-cause-huge-loss-of-prime-farmland-unccd-66562/.

Karademir, E., & Karademir, C. (2020). Effect of different boron application on cotton yield components and fiber quality properties. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova, 4(180), 341-352.

Kaur, D., Tantray, Y. R., & Singhal, V. K. (2019). Cytological study in some species of Lactuca L. (Asteraceae) from high altitudinal regions of Kinnaur district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Taiwania, 64(2), 111-117.

Kaur, G., Kaur, N., & Kaur, A. (2020). Lipid profile of hyperlipidemic males after supplementation of multigrain bread containing sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed flour. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 58, 2617-2629.

Khurana, S., & Singh, R. (2021). Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed. In Oilseeds: Health Attributes and Food Applications (pp. 123-143). Springer, Singapore.

Kim, J. C., Lee, S. H., Cheong, Y. H., Yoo, C. M., Lee, S. I., Chun, H. J., Yun, D. J., Hong, J. C., Lee, S. Y., Lim, C. O., & Cho, M. J. (2001). A novel cold‐inducible zinc finger protein from soybean, SCOF‐1, enhances cold tolerance in transgenic plants. The Plant Journal, 25(3), 247-259.

Kimura, A. H., & Nishiyama, M. (2008). The chisan-chisho movement: Japanese local food movement and its challenges. Agriculture and Human Values, 25(1), 49-64.

Kingston, P. H., Scagel, C. F., Bryla, D. R., & Strik, B. C. (2020). Influence of perlite in peat- and coir-based media on vegetative growth and mineral nutrition of highbush blueberry. HortScience, 55(5), 658-663.

Kobori, C. N., & Amaya, D. B. R. (2008). Uncultivated brazilian green leaves are richer sources of carotenoids than are commercially produced leafy vegetables. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 29(4), 320-328.

Kocabas, Y. Z., & Karaman, S. (2001). Essential oils of Lamiaceae family from South East Mediterranean region (Turkey). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(10), 1221-1223.

Kornienko, J. S., Smirnova, I. S., Pugovkina, N. A., Ivanova, J. S., Shilina, M. A., Grinchuk, T. M., Shatrova, A. N., Aksenov, N. D., Zenin, V. V., Nikolsky, N. N., & Lyublinskaya, O. G. (2019). High doses of synthetic antioxidants induce premature senescence in cultivated mesenchymal stem cells. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1296-1309.

Kou, L., Luo, Y., Yang, T., Xiao, Z., Turner, E. R., Lester, G. E., Wang, Q., & Camp, M. J. (2013). Postharvest biology, quality and shelf life of buckwheat microgreens. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 51(1), 73-78.

Kou, L., Yang, T., Liu, X., & Luo, Y. (2015). Effects of pre-and postharvest calcium treatments on shelf life and postharvest quality of broccoli microgreens. Horticultural Science, 50(12), 1801-1808.

Kovács, B., Puskás-Preszner, A., Huzsvai, L., Lévai, L., & Bódi, É. (2015). Effect of molybdenum treatment on molybdenum concentration and nitrate reduction in maize seedlings. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 96, 38-44.

Kreidl, M., Rainer, M., Jakschitz, T., & Bonn, G. K. (2020). Determination of phototoxic furanocoumarins in natural cosmetics using SPE with LC-MS. Analytica Chimica Acta, 1101, 211-221.

Ku, K. M., Jeffery, E. H., & Juvik, J. A. (2014). Exogenous methyl jasmonate treatment increases glucosinolate biosynthesis and quinone reductase activity in kale leaf tissue. PLoS One, 9(8), 103407-103421.

Kumar, A., Rana, A. K., Singh, A., & Singh, A. (2019). Bioactivity of methanolic extract of Brassica juncea in animal model of diabetes mellitus. Chinese Herbal Medicines, 11(4), 434-437.

Kumar, J. R., Natasha, B., Suraj, K. C., Kumar, S. A., & Manahar, K. (2019). Rooftop farming: An alternative to conventional farming for urban sustainability. Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(1), 39-43.

Kwiatkowska, M., Kadłuczka, D., Wędzony, M., Dedicova, B., & Grzebelus, E. (2019). Refinement of a clearing protocol to study crassinucellate ovules of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., Amaranthaceae). Plant methods, 15(1), 1-12.

Kyriacou, M. C., El-Nakhel, C., Graziani, G., Pannico, A., Soteriou, G. A., Giordano, M., Ritieni, A., Pascale, S. D., & Rouphael, Y. (2019). Functional quality in novel food sources: Genotypic variation in the nutritive and phytochemical composition of thirteen microgreens species. Food Chemistry, 277, 107-118.

Kyriacou, M. C., Marios, C., Rouphael, Y., Giaoia, D. F., Kyratzis, A., Serio, F., Renna, M., Pascale, D. S. & Santamaria, P. (2016). Micro-scale vegetable production and the rise of microgreens. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 57, 101-115.

Lacity, M. C., & Janson, M. A. (1994). Understanding qualitative data: A framework of text analysis methods. Journal of Management Information Systems, 11(2), 137-155.

Lafreniere, A. (2020). Harvesting microgreens: The ultimate guide (when, how, and top tips). Plant Hardware. Retrieved on March 20, 2021, from https://planthardware.com/microgreens-harvesting/.

Langemeyer, J., Madrid-Lopez, C., Beltran, A. M., & Mendez, G. V. (2021). Urban agriculture—A necessary pathway towards urban resilience and global sustainability?. Landscape and Urban Planning, 210, 104055-104062.

Le, T. N., Luong, H. Q., Li, H. P., Chiu, C. H., & Hsieh, P. C. (2019). Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts as the potential food source for bioactive properties: A comprehensive study on in vitro disease models. Foods, 8(11), 532-546.

Lee, D. Y., Li, H., Lim, H. J., Lee, H. J., Jeon, R., & Ryu, J. H. (2012). Anti-inflammatory activity of sulfur-containing compounds from garlic. Journal of Medicinal Food, 15(11), 992–999.

Lehmann, S. (2014). Low carbon districts: Mitigating the urban heat island with green roof infrastructure. City, Culture and Society, 5(1), 1-8.

Leontiev, R., Hohaus, N., Jacob, C., Gruhlke, M. C., & Slusarenko, A. J. (2018). A comparison of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of thiosulfinate analogues of allicin. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-19.

Li, B., George, E. W., Rognon, G. T., Gorusupudi, A., Ranganathan, A., Chang, F. Y., Shi, L., Frederick, J. M., & Bernstein, P. S. (2020). Imaging lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina with confocal resonance raman microscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(22), 12352-12358.

Li, R., & Zhu, Y. (2018). The primary active components, antioxidant properties, and differential metabolite profiles of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) upon domestic storage: Analysis of nutritional quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(15), 5853-5860.

Li, X. and Siddique, K. H. M. (2018). Future smart food - Rediscovering hidden treasures of neglected and underutilized species for zero hunger in Asia. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved March 18, 2021, from http://www.fao.org/3/I9136EN/i9136en.pdf/

Liang, X., Lee, H. W., Li, Z., Lu, Y., Zou, L., & Ong, C. N. (2018). Simultaneous quantification of 22 glucosinolates in 12 Brassicaceae vegetables by hydrophilic interaction chromatography–Tandem mass spectrometry. ACS Omega, 3(11), 15546-15553.

Liu, Q., Meng, X., Li, Y., Zhao, C. N., Tang, G. Y., & Li, H. B. (2017). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of spices. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(6), 1283-1344.

Lobo, V., Patil, A., Phatak, A., & Chandra, N. (2010). Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4(8), 118-126.

López, J.-C., Tirado-Noriega, L.G., Sánchez-Machado, D.I., Campas-Baypoli, O.N., Cantú-Soto, E.U., & Núñez-Gastélum, J.A. (2013). Biochemical composition of broccoli seeds and sprouts at different stages of seedling development. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48, 2267–2275.

Lor, J. S. (2019). From rooftop gardens to microgreens: Hong Kong’s urban farming pioneers. Green Queen. Retrieved May 17, 2021, from https://www.greenqueen.com.hk/best-urban-farms-hong-kong/.

Lourenço, S. C., Moldão-Martins, M., & Alves, V. D. (2019). Antioxidants of natural plant origins: from sources to food industry applications. Molecules, 24(22), 4132-4157.

Lu, Y., Dong, W., Alcazar, J., Yang, T., Luo, Y., Wang, Q., & Chen, P. (2018). Effect of preharvest CaCl2 spray and postharvest UV-B radiation on storage quality of broccoli microgreens, a richer source of glucosinolates. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 67, 55-62.

Majdi, C., Pereira, C., Dias, M. I., Calhelha, R. C., Alves, M. J., Rhourri-Frih, B., Charrouf, Z., Barros, L., Amaral, J. S., & Ferreira, I. C. (2020). Phytochemical characterization and bioactive properties of cinnamon basil (Ocimum basilicum cv.‘Cinnamon’) and lemon basil (Ocimum × citriodorum). Antioxidants, 9(5), 369-386.

Mampholo, B. M., Maboko, M. M., Soundy, P., & Sivakumar, D. (2016). Phytochemicals and overall quality of leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties grown in closed hydroponic system. Journal of Food Quality, 39(6), 805-815.

Marçal, D., Mesquita, G., Kallas, L. M., & Hora, K. E. R. (2021). Urban and Peri-urban agriculture in Goiânia: The Search for solutions to adapt cities in the context of global climate change. Urban Climate, 35, 100732-100750.

Maresca, T. Farming goes underground in Seoul subway station. UPI. Retrieved May 17, 2021, from https://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2019/11/01/Farming-goes-underground-in-Seoul-subway-station/5201572620861/.

Margenat, A., Matamoros, V., Díez, S., Cañameras, N., Comas, J., & Bayona, J. M. (2019). Occurrence and human health implications of chemical contaminants in vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture. Environment International, 124, 49-57

Medema, M. H., Blin, K., Cimermancic, P., de Jager, V., Zakrzewski, P., Fischbach, M. A., Weber, T., Takano, E., & Breitling, R. (2011). antiSMASH: Rapid identification, annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genome sequences. Nucleic Acids Research, 39(2), 339-346.

Michell, K. A., Isweiri, H., Newman, S. E., Bunning, M., Bellows, L. L., Dinges, M. M., Grabos, L. E., Rao, S., Foster, M. T., Heuberger, A. L., Prenni, J. E., Thompson, H. J., Uchanski, M. E., Weir, T. L., & Johnson, S. A. (2020). Microgreens: Consumer sensory perception and acceptance of an emerging functional food crop. Journal of Food Science, 85(4), 926-935.

Mihats, D., Pilsbacher, L., Gabernig, R., Routil, M., Gutternigg, M., & Laenger, R. (2017). Levels of estragole in fennel teas marketed in Austria and assessment of dietary exposure. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 68(5), 569-576.

Mir, S. A., Farooq, S., Shah, M. A., Sofi, S. A., Dar, B. N., Hamdani, A. M., & Khaneghah, A. M. (2021). An overview of sprouts nutritional properties, pathogens and decontamination technologies. LWT, 141(110900), 1-9.

Mir, M. S., Naikoo, N. B., Kanth, R. H., Bahar, F. A., Bhat, M. A., Nazir, A., ... & Ahngar, T. A. (2022). Vertical farming: The future of agriculture: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 11(2), 1175-1195

Mir, S. A., Shah, M. A. & Mir, M. M. (2017). Microgreens: Production, shelf life, and bioactive components. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 57(12), 2730-2736.

Mishra, S. K., Tripathi, G., Kishore, N., Singh, R. K., Singh, A., & Tiwari, V. K. (2017). Drug development against tuberculosis: Impact of alkaloids. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 137, 504-544.

Mohammad, P., Goswami, A., & Bonafoni, S. (2019). The impact of the land cover dynamics on surface urban heat island variations in semi-arid cities: A case study in Ahmedabad City, India, Using Multi-sensor/source Data. Sensors, 19(17), 3701-3721.

Mohan, S. V., Hemalatha, M., Amulya, K., Velvizhi, G., Chiranjeevi, P., Sarkar, O., Kumar, A. N., Krishna, K. V., Modestra, J. A., Dahiya, S., Yeruva, D. K., Butti, S. K., Sravan, J. S. Chatterjee, S. & Kona, R. (2020). Decentralized urban farming through keyhole garden: A case study with circular economy and regenerative perspective. Materials Circular Economy, 2(1), 1-12.

Mohanta, R., Nandi, A. K., Mishra, S. P., Pattnaik, A., Hossain, M. M., & Padhiary, A. K. (2018). Effects of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield, quality and economics of sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cv. Shayali. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(1), 2229-2232

Moradi, M. T., Karimi, A., Rafieian-Kopaei, M., & Fotouhi, F. (2017). In vitro antiviral effects of Peganum harmala seed extract and its total alkaloids against influenza virus. Microbial Pathogenesis, 110, 42-49.

Mordor Intelligence. (2020). Microgreens market - Growth, trends and forecasts (2020-2025). Retrieved December 24, 2020, from http://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/microgreens-market/.

Moreira-Rodríguez, M., Nair, V., Benavides, J., Cisneros-Zevallos, L., & Jacobo-Velázquez, D. A. (2017). UVA, UVB light, and methyl jasmonate, alone or combined, redirect the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, phenolics, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in broccoli sprouts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(11), 2330-2349.

Mostafidi, M., Sanjabi, M. R., Shirkhan, F., & Zahedi, M. T. (2020). A review of recent trends in the development of the microbial safety of fruits and vegetables. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 103, 321-332.

Mulvihil, S. (2010). Edible crops add diversity, visual appeal. The Spokesman-Review. Retrieved May 19, 2021, from www.spokesman.com/stories/2010/jun/13/edible-crops-add-diversity-visual-appeal/.

Murphy, C. J., Llort, K. F., & Pill, W. G. (2010). Factors affecting the growth of microgreen table beet. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 16(3), 253-266.

Nakhli, S. A. A., Delkash, M., Bakhshayesh, B. E., & Kazemian, H. (2017). Application of zeolites for sustainable agriculture: A review on water and nutrient retention. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 228(12), 1-34.

Nguyen, P., Nguyen, T., & Nguyen, M. (2020). An analysis of factors affecting residents’ perception of peri-urban agriculture in Hanoi, Vietnam. Management Science Letters, 10(15), 3469-3476.

Nolan, D. A. (2019). Effects of seed density and other factors on the yield of microgreens grown hydroponically on burlap (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/

Nwosisi S., & Nandwani D. (2018) Urban horticulture: Overview of recent developments. In Urban Horticulture. Sustainable Development and Biodiversity (pp. 3–29). Springer, Cham.

Ogunlade, B., Adelakun, S. A., Akinola, B. K., & Adedotun, O. A. (2021). Histomorphometric and collagen fibers organization in annular punctured induced intervertebral disc degeneration in rabbit model: Restorative and antioxidant role of Brassica oleracea. Advances in Traditional Medicine, 21, 341-350.

Okmen, G., Bozanta, E., Aysel, U., & Ceyhan, N. (2011). Zinc effect on Chlorophyll a, total carbohydrate, total protein contents and biomass of Cyanobacterial species. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 5(2), 67-73.

Oktafiani, R., Widiatningrum, T., & Retnoningsih, A. (2021). Determination of seed plant in Jepara’s urban farming during the pandemic Covid 19. Journal of Physics, 1918(5), 52026-52031.

Olaiya, C. O., & Soetan, K. O. (2014). A review of the health benefits of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.): Nutritional, biochemical and pharmaceutical perspectives. American Journal of Social Issues and Humanities, 4, 3-12.

Opitz, I., Berges, R., Piorr, A., & Krikser, T. (2016). Contributing to food security in urban areas: differences between urban agriculture and peri-urban agriculture in the Global North. Agriculture and Human Values, 33, 341-358.

Ördög, K. Molnár, Z., & Agrármérnöki, A. (2011). Nutrient of Supply. Plant Physiology, 1(1), 1-121

Paduch, R., Kandefer-Szerszeń, M., Trytek, M., & Fiedurek, J. (2007). Terpenes: Substances useful in human healthcare. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, 55(5), 315-327.

Palmitessa, O. D., Renna, M., Crupi, P., Lovece, A., Corbo, F., & Santamaria, P. (2020). Yield and quality characteristics of Brassica microgreens as affected by the NH4: NO3 molar ratio and strength of the nutrient solution. Foods, 9(5), 677-693.

Palys, M. J., Wang, H., Zhang, Q., & Daoutidis, P. (2021). Renewable ammonia for sustainable energy and agriculture: Vision and systems engineering opportunities. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 31, 100667-100674.

Pancholi, P., Kumar, A., Bikundia, D. S., & Chourasiya, S. (2018). An observation of seasonal and diurnal behavior of O3–NOx relationships and local/regional oxidant (OX= O3+ NO2) levels at a semi-arid urban site of western India. Sustainable Environment Research, 28(2), 79-89.

Paradiso, V. M., Castellino, M., Renna, M., Gattullo, C. E., Calasso, M., Terzano, R., Allegretta, I., Leoni, B., Caponia, F., & Santamaria, P. (2018). Nutritional characterization and shelf-life of packaged microgreens. Food & Function, 9(11), 5629-5640.

Pearson, L. J., Pearson, L., & Pearson, C. J. (2010). Sustainable urban agriculture: Stocktake and opportunities. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 8(1), 7-19.

Pinto, E., Almeida, A. A., Aguiar, A. A., & Ferreira, I. M. (2015). Comparison between the mineral profile and nitrate content of microgreens and mature lettuces. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 37, 38-43.

Podsędek, A., Sosnowska, D., Redzynia, M., & Anders, B. (2006). Antioxidant capacity and content of Brassica oleracea dietary antioxidants. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 41, 49-58.

Poulsen, M. N., McNab, P. R., Clayton, M. L., & Neff, R. A. (2015). A systematic review of urban agriculture and food security impacts in low-income countries. Food Policy, 55, 131-146.

Pradhan, P., Kriewald, S., Costa, L., Rybski, D., Benton, T. G., Fischer, G., & Kropp, J. P. (2020). Urban food systems: How regionalization can contribute to climate change mitigation. Environmental Science & Technology, 54(17), 10551-10560.

Pramanik, K., & Bera, A. K. (2013). Effect of seedling age and nitrogen fertilizer on growth, chlorophyll content, yield and economics of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4(5), 3489-3499.

Prasad, R., Bhattacharyya, A., & Nguyen, Q. D. (2017). nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Recent developments, challenges, and perspectives. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8(1014), 1-13.

Prieto, M. A., López, C. J., & Simal-Gandara, J. (2019). Glucosinolates: Molecular structure, breakdown, genetic, bioavailability, properties and healthy and adverse effects. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 90, 305-350.

Punia, D., Yadav, S. K., Gupta, M., & Khetarpaul, N. (2004). Nutrient composition of Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) and Kondhara (Digeria arvensis) leaves and their products. Journal of Food Science and Technology-mysore, 41(5), 563-566.

Qiu, G. Y., Li, H. Y., Zhang, Q. T., Wan, C., Liang, X. J., & Li, X. Z. (2013). Effects of evapotranspiration on mitigation of urban temperature by vegetation and urban agriculture. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 12(8), 1307-1315.

Rajan, P., Lada, R. R., & MacDonald, M. T. (2019). Advancement in indoor vertical farming for microgreen production. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 10(08), 1397-1409.

Ramadan, M. F., & Oraby, H. F. (2020). Lepidium sativum seeds: therapeutic significance and health-promoting potential. In Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention (pp. 273-289). Academic Press.

Ramu, Y., Xu, Y., & Lu, Z. (2006). Enzymatic activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. Nature, 442(7103), 696-699.

React Green. (2020). Microgreens in India: Fast, delicious and healthy crop for everyone. Retrieved March 1, 2021, from https://reactgreens.com/microgreens-in-india/.

Redaksi, H. A. R. (2020). Pandemi, swasta ambil peluang bisnis dari tren urban farming. HarianAceh Indonesia. Retrieved May 17, 2021, from https://www.harianaceh.co.id/2020/10/22/pandemi-swasta-ambil-peluang-bisnis-dari-tren-urban-farming/.

Reganold, J. P., Papendick, R. I., & Parr, J. F. (1990). Sustainable Agriculture. Scientific American, 262(6), 112-121.

Reid, R. J., Tester, M. A., & Smith, F. A. (1995). Calcium/aluminium interactions in the cell wall and plasma membrane of chara. Planta, 195(3), 362-368.

Rice-Evans, C. A., & Diplock, A. T. (1993). Status of antioxidant therapy. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 15(1), 77-96.

Riggio, G. M., Wang, Q., Kniel, K. E., & Gibson, K. E. (2019). Microgreens—A review of food safety considerations along the farm to fork continuum. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 290, 76-85.

Roberts, J. E., & Dennison, J. (2015). The photobiology of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Journal of Ophthalmology, 2015(1). 1-8.

Roozbeh, N., Kashef, R., Ghazanfarpour, M., Kargarfard, L., Darvish, L., Khadivzadeh, T., Dizavandi, F. R., & Afiat, M. (2018). Overview of the effect of herbal medicines and isoflavones on the treatment of cognitive function. Journal of Menopausal Medicine, 24(2), 113-118.

Rosen, C., Bierman, P., and Finney, H. (2013). Master gardener core course: Horticulture for the home gardener. Soil Resources and Fertilizers, 1, 41-88.

Rouamba, A., Compaoré, M., & Kiendrebeogo, M. (2018). Chemopreventive compounds from plant derived food and their bioactivity. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 9(5), 1-7.

Saad, B., Sing, Y. Y., Nawi, M. A., Hashim, N., Ali, A. S. M., Saleh, M. I., Sulaiman, S. F., Talib, K. M., & Ahmad, K. (2007). Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in food items using reversed-phase HPLC. Food Chemistry, 105(1), 389-394.

Sabet, H., & Mortazaeinezhad, F. (2018). Yield, growth and Fe uptake of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) affected by Fe-nano, Fe-chelated and Fe-siderophore fertilization in the calcareous soils. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 50, 154-160.

Saengha, W., Karirat, T., Buranrat, B., Matra, K., Deeseenthum, S., Katisart, T., & Luang-In, V. (2021). Cold plasma treatment on mustard green seeds and its effect on growth, isothiocyanates, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity of microgreens. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, 25, 667-676.

Saha, M., & Eckelman, M. J. (2017). Growing fresh fruits and vegetables in an urban landscape: A geospatial assessment of ground level and rooftop urban agriculture potential in Boston, USA. Landscape and Urban Planning, 165, 130-141.

Saini, R. K., Keum, Y. S., Daglia, M., & Rengasamy, K. R. (2020). Dietary carotenoids in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy: A review of emerging evidence. Pharmacological Research, 157(104830), 1-12.

Šamec, D., & Salopek-Sondi, B. (2019). Cruciferous (Brassicaceae) vegetables. In Nonvitamin and Nonmineral Nutritional Supplements (pp. 195-202). Academic Press.

Samuolienė, G., Brazaitytė, A., Viršilė, A., Miliauskienė, J., Vaštakaitė-Kairienė, V., & Duchovskis, P. (2019). Nutrient levels in Brassicaceae microgreens increase under tailored light-emitting diode spectra. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10(1475), 1-9

Satisha, J. (2023). Horticultural crops. In Trajectory of 75 years of Indian Agriculture after Independence (pp. 265-293). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.

Senevirathne, G. I., Gama-Arachchige, N. S., & Karunaratne, A. M. (2019). Germination, harvesting stage, antioxidant activity and consumer acceptance of ten microgreens. Ceylon Journal of Science, 48(1), 91-96.

Sheikh, I., Sharma, V., Tuli, H. S., Aggarwal, D., Sankhyan, A., Vyas, P., ... & Bishayee, A. (2020). Cancer chemoprevention by flavonoids, dietary polyphenols and terpenoids. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 11(1), 8502-8537.

Shubha, K., Mukherjee, A., Tamta, M., & Koley, T. K. (2019). Arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell.): A healthy leafy vegetable. Agriculture and Food, 1(11), 1-4.

Sikka, A. K., Islam, A., & Rao, K. V. (2018). Climate‐smart land and water management for sustainable agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage, 67(1), 72-81.

Simpson, M. G. (2010). Diversity and classification of flowering plants: Eudicots. In Plant Systematic (pp. 275-448). Elsevier.

Sindhi, V., Gupta, V., Sharma, K., Bhatnagar, S., Kumari, R., & Dhaka, N. (2013). Potential applications of antioxidants–A review. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 7(9), 828-835.

Singh, A. (2017). Glucosinolates and plant defense. In Reference Series in Phytochemistry (pp. 237-246). Springer, Cham.

Singh, J., Upadhyay, A. K., Bahadur, A., Singh, B., Singh, K. P., & Rai, M. (2006). Antioxidant phytochemicals in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata). Scientia Horticulturae, 108(3), 233-237.

Singh, M. (2021). Organic farming for sustainable agriculture. Indian Journal of Organic Farming, 1(1), 1-8.

Singh, N., Rani, S., & Chaurasia, O. P. (2019). Vegetable microgreens farming in high-altitude region of trans-Himalayas to maintain nutritional diet of Indian troops. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 90(4), 1-10.

Singhal, V. K., Tantray, Y. R., Gupta, H., Rana, P. K., Kaur, M., & Gupta, R. C. (2018). Male meiosis and chromosomal status in the genus Lactuca L. from Western Himalayas (India). Cytologia, 83(3), 311-316.

Singletary, K. W. (2018). Basil: A brief summary of potential health benefits. Nutrition Today, 53(2), 92-97.

Sirtautas, R., Sakalauskienė, S., Jankauskienė, J., Duchovskis, P., Novičkovas, A., Samuolienė, G., & Brazaitytė, A. (2012). The impact of supplementary short-term red LED lighting on the antioxidant properties of microgreens. In VII International Symposium on Light in Horticultural Systems, 956, 649-656.

Smith, G., Nandwani, D., & Kankarla, V. (2017). Facilitating resilient rural-to-urban sustainable agriculture and rural communities. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 24(6), 485-501.

Sobolewska, D., Podolak, I., & Makowska-Wąs, J. (2015). Allium ursinum: Botanical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Overview. Phytochemistry Reviews, 14(1), 81-97.

Specht, K., Siebert, R., & Thomaier, S. (2016). Perception and acceptance of agricultural production in and on urban buildings (ZFarming): A qualitative study from Berlin, Germany. Agriculture and Human Values, 33(4), 753-769.

Springer, M., & Moco, S. (2019). Resveratrol and its human metabolites—Effects on metabolic health and obesity. Nutrients, 11(1), 143-159

Steenkamp, J., Cilliers, E. J., Cilliers, S. S., & Lategan, L. (2021). Food for thought: Addressing urban food security risks through urban agriculture. Sustainability, 13(3), 1267-1293.

Stevens, Y., Rymenant, E. V., Grootaert, C., Camp, J. V., Possemiers, S., Masclee, A., & Jonkers, D. (2019). The intestinal fate of citrus flavanones and their effects on gastrointestinal health. Nutrients, 11(7), 1464-1480.

Sudhakaran, M., & Doseff, A. I. (2020). The targeted impact of flavones on obesity-induced inflammation and the potential synergistic role in cancer and the gut microbiota. Molecules, 25(11), 2477-2504.

Suvorov, S. A., & Skurikhin, V. V. (2003). Vermiculite—A promising material for high-temperature heat insulators. Refractories and Industrial Ceramics, 44(3), 186-193.

Szczurek, A. (2021). Perspectives on tannins. Biomolecules, 11, 442-444.

Tamokou, J. D. D., Mbaveng, A. T., & Kuete, V. (2017). Antimicrobial activities of African medicinal spices and vegetables. In Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa (pp. 207-237). Academic Press.

Tan, A. (2021). Budget 2021: New $60m agri-food cluster transformation fund to boost local production through technology. Straits Times. Retrieved May 19, 2021, from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/budget-2021-new-60m-agri-food-cluster-transformation-fund-to-boost-local-production/.

Tan, B. L., & Norhaizan, M. E. (2019). Carotenoids: How effective are they to prevent age-related diseases?. Molecules, 24(9), 1801-1823.

Tasciotti, L., & Wagner, N. (2015). Urban agriculture and dietary diversity: Empirical evidence from Tanzania. The European Journal of Development Research, 27, 631-649

Theis, N., & Lerdau, M. (2003). The evolution of function in plant secondary metabolites. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164(3), 93-102.

Thor, K. (2019). Calcium—Nutrient and messenger. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10(440), 1-7.

Ti, C., Xia, L., Chang, S. X., & Yan, X. (2019). Potential for mitigating global agricultural ammonia emission: A meta-analysis. Environmental Pollution, 245, 141-148.

Tiwari, R., & Rana, C. S. (2015). Plant secondary metabolites: A review. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 3(5), 661-670.

Toledo, M. Z., Garcia, R. A., Merlin, A., & Fernandes, D. M. (2011). Seed germination and seedling development of white oat affected by silicon and phosphorus fertilization. Scientia Agricola, 68(1), 18-23.

Tomas, M., Zhang, L., Zengin, G., Rocchetti, G., Capanoglu, E., & Lucini, L. (2021). Metabolomic insight into the profile, in vitro bioaccessibility and bioactive properties of polyphenols and glucosinolates from four Brassicaceae microgreens. Food Research International, 140, 110039-110050.

Tornaghi, C. (2017). Urban Agriculture in the Food‐Disabling City:(Re) defining urban food justice, reimagining a politics of empowerment. Antipode, 49(3), 781-801.

Toujani, M. M., Rittà, M., Civra, A., Genovese, S., Epifano, F., Ghram, A., Lembo, D., & Donalisio, M. (2018). Inhibition of HSV‐2 infection by pure compounds from Thymus capitatus extract in vitro. Phytotherapy Research, 32(8), 1555-1563.

Treadwell, D., Hochmuth, R., Landrum, L., & Laughlin, W. (2010). Microgreens: A new specialty crop. EDIS, 2010(3), 1-3.

Truzzi, F., Whittaker, A., Roncuzzi, C., Saltari, A., Levesque, M. P., & Dinelli, G. (2021). Microgreens: Functional food with antiproliferative cancer properties influenced by light. Foods, 10(8), 1690-1709.

Tsion, K., & Steven, W. (2019). An overview use and impact of organic and synthetic farm inputs in developed and developing countries. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 19(3), 14517-14540.

Turner, E.R., Luo, Y., & Buchanan, R.L. (2020). Microgreen nutrition, food safety, and shelf life: A review. Journal of Food Science, 85(4), 870-882.

Ugartondo, V., Mitjans, M., & Vinardell, M. P. (2008). comparative antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of lignins from different sources. Bioresource Technology, 99(14), 6683-6687.

Unas, W. P. R. (2021). Ambil peluang bisnis di era new normal, dosen pertanian pamerkan budidaya microgreen. Universitas Nasional. Retrieved May 17, 2021, from https://www.unas.ac.id/berita/ambil-peluang-bisnis-di-era-new-normal-dosen-pertanian-pamerkan-budidaya-microgreen/.

United Nations. (2018). 68% of the world population projected to live in urban areas by 2050, says UN. Retrieved May 17, 2021, from https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html/.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. (2012). FoodData central. Retrieved May 18, 2021, from https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/.

Vargas-Hernández, J. G., Pallagst, K., & Zdunek-Wielgołaska, J. (2017). Urban green spaces as a component of an ecosystem. Functions, services, users, community involvement, initiatives and actions. Revista de Urbanismo, 37, 1-26.

Vendrame, S., & Klimis-Zacas, D. (2019). Potential factors influencing the effects of anthocyanins on blood pressure regulation in humans: A review. Nutrients, 11(6), 1431-1449.

Venice, A. S. S. (2019). Creating a Circular Economy with Urban Farming (Doctoral dissertation), Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Massachusetts, United States.

Vishunavat, K., Prabakar, K., & Anand, T. (2023). Seed health: Testing and management. Malavika Dadlani, 335-364

Waffle, A. D., Corry, R. C., Gillespie, T. J., & Brown, R. D. (2017). Urban heat islands as agricultural opportunities: An innovative approach. Landscape and Urban Planning, 161, 103-114.

Wang, L., & Wang, B. (2020). Construction of greenhouse environment temperature adaptive model based on parameter identification. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 174, 105477-105484.

Wang, Z., Hong, X., Hu, K., Wang, Y., Wang, X., Du, S., Li, Y., Hu, D., Cheng, K., An, B., & Li, Y. (2017). Impaired magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (ChlM) impedes chlorophyll synthesis and plant growth in rice. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, 1694-1711.

Waseem, L. A., Farhat, K., Ali, S. S., & Naqvi, S. A. A. (2019). Urbanization impacts on urban agriculture land conversions and crop production in metropolitan Lahore Pakistan. Pakistan Geographical Review, 74, (1), 48-60.

Waterland, N. L., Moon, Y., Tou, J. C., Kim, M. J., Pena-Yewtukhiw, E. M., & Park, S. (2017). Mineral content differs among microgreen, baby leaf, and adult stages in three cultivars of kale. HortScience, 52(4), 566-571.

Weber, C. F. (2017). Broccoli microgreens: A mineral-rich crop that can diversify food systems. Frontiers in Nutrition, 4, 7-16.

White, P. J. & Brown, P. H. (2010). Plant nutrition for sustainable development and global health. Annals of Botany, 105(7), 1072-1080.

Wink, M. (1999). Introduction: Biochemistry, role and biotechnology of secondary metabolites. Functions of Plant Secondary Metabolites and their Exploitation in Biotechnology, 1, 1-16.

Wiśniewska-Paluszak, J., Paluszak, G., Fiore, M., Coticchio, A., Galati, A., & Lira, J. (2023). Urban agriculture business models and value propositions: Mixed methods approach based on evidence from Polish and Italian case studies. Land Use Policy, 127, 106562-106574.

Wittstock, U., & Gershenzon, J. (2002). Constitutive plant toxins and their role in defense against herbivores and pathogens. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 5(4), 300-307.

Woodman, O. L., Chin, K. Y., Thomas, C. J., Ng, D. C., & May, C. N. (2018). Flavonols and flavones–protecting against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by targeting protein kinases. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 25(34), 4402-4415.

World Health Organization. (2020). Food safety. Retrieved May 16, 2021, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/food-safety/.

World Health Organization. (2020). Malnutrition. Retrieved March 5, 2021, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malnutrition/.

Xiao, Z., Bauchan, G., Nichols-Russell, L., Luo, Y., Wang, Q & Nou, X. (2015). Proliferation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil-substitute and hydroponic microgreen production systems. Journal of Food Protection, 78(10), 1785-1790.

Xiao, Z., Lester, G. E., Luo, Y. & Wang, Q. (2012). Assessment of vitamin and carotenoid concentrations of emerging food products: Edible microgreens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Sciences, 60(31), 7644-7651.

Xiao, Z., Lester, G. E., Luo, Y., Xie, Z. K., Yu, L. L., & Wang, Q. (2014). Effect of light exposure on sensorial quality, concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of radish microgreens during low temperature storage. Food chemistry, 151, 472-479.

Xiao, Z., Lester, G. E., Park, E., Saftner, R. A., Luo, Y. & Wang, Q. (2015). Evaluation and correlation of sensory attributes and chemical composition of emerging fresh produce: Microgreens. Postharvest Biological Technology, 110, 140-148.

Xiao, Z., Rausch, S. R., Luo, Y., Sun, J., Yu, L., Wang, Q., Yu, L., & Stommel, J. R. (2019). Microgreens of Brassicaceae: Genetic diversity of phytochemical concentrations and antioxidant capacity. LWT, 101, 731-737.

Yadav, L. P., Koley, T. K., Tripathi, A., & Singh, S. (2019). Antioxidant potentiality and mineral content of summer season leafy greens: Comparison at mature and microgreen stages using chemometric. Agricultural Research, 8(2), 165-175.

Yanaka, A., Fahey, J. W., Fukumoto, A., Nakayama, M., Inoue, S., Zhang, S., Tauchi, M., Suzuki, H., Hyodo, I., & Yamamoto, M. (2009). Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans. Cancer Prevention Research, 2(4), 353–360.

Young, I. S., & Woodside, J. V. (2001). Antioxidants in health and disease. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 54(3), 176-186.

Yuan, G. N., Marquez, G. P. B., Deng, H., Iu, A., Fabella, M., Salonga, R. B., ... & Cartagena, J. A. (2022). A review on urban agriculture: Technology, socio-economy, and policy. Heliyon, 8, 11582-11599

Zhang, K., Zhang, Y., Walck, J. L., & Tao, J. (2019). Non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of Angelica keiskei (Apiaceae). Scientia Horticulturae, 255, 202-208.

Zhang, P., Wang, Q., Lin, Z., Yang, P., Dou, K., & Zhang, R. (2019). Berberine inhibits growth of liver cancer cells by suppressing glutamine uptake. Oncotargets and Therapy, 12, 11751-11763.

Zhang, X., Bian, Z., Li, S., Chen, X., & Lu, C. (2019). Comparative analysis of phenolic compound profiles, antioxidant capacities, and expressions of phenolic biosynthesis-related genes in soybean microgreens grown under different light spectra. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(49), 13577-13588.

Zhang, X., Bian, Z., Yuan, X., Chen, X., & Lu, C. (2020). A review on the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) light on the nutrients of sprouts and microgreens. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 99, 203-216.



How to Cite

Amil , M. A. ., Mat Saad , H. ., Tan, C. H., & Sim, K. S. (2024). A Review of Microgreens In Southeast Asia: Sustainable Agriculture, Phytochemicals, and Biological Activities. International Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine (IJBB), 1(1), 19-71. https://doi.org/10.31674/ijbb.2024.v01i01.003