Malaysian Journal of Medical Research (MJMR) <p style="float: left; padding-right: 30px;"><img style="width: 280px; max-height: 100%;" src="/public/site/images/admin/MJMR-cover3.jpg"></p> <p style="text-align: justify; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;">Malaysian Journal of Medical Research (MJMR) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, quarterly, journal published by Lincoln University College, Asia Pacific Higher Learning Sdn Bhd. MJMR provides an opening for research scientists in areas of Health Sciences.<br>MJMR is an open access, online, double blind peer reviewed international journal with a primary objective to provide research and applications related to all the health sciences in the fields of Medicine, Biology, Dentistry, Medical Education, Physiotherapy, Pharmacy, and Nursing. Our objective is to encourage new research ideas and promote practical application from the research findings. The journal publishes original research, review articles, case reports of such high quality as to attract contributions from the relevant international communities.</p> <h3>Topics of interest to MJMR readers include:</h3> <p style="margin-top: -20px; text-align: justify;">1. Anatomy&nbsp; 2. Physiology&nbsp; 3. Bio-chemistry&nbsp; 4. Pathology&nbsp; 5. Microbiology&nbsp; 6. Forensic Medicine&nbsp; 7. Medicine&nbsp; 8. Surgery&nbsp; 9. Pediatric&nbsp; 10. Obstetrics&nbsp; 11. Gynecology&nbsp; 12. Ophthalmology&nbsp; 13. ENT&nbsp; 14. Orthopedics&nbsp; 15. Community medicine&nbsp; 16. Public health and other field associated with medicines</p> Lincoln University College, Asia Pacific Higher Learning Sdn Bhd. en-US Malaysian Journal of Medical Research (MJMR) 2550-1607 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SENSATION SEEKING AND INTERNET USE AMONG INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between sensation seeking and level of Internet use. This study is a quantitative research and a convenient sampling method as used to select 313 male and female international students in a public university in Malaysia. In this study, three questionnaires were used including Demographic Questionnaire, Sensation Seeking Scale, and Internet Addiction Test. Descriptive analyses and Pearson correlation was used to explore the relationship between level of Internet use and sensation seeking in participants. The results showed that there is significant positive relationship between sensation seeking and level of Internet use among students.</p> Saeideh Rezaei Sonia Khodabakhsh Mohtaram Rabbani Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 4 4 ASSOCIATION OF ALVARADO SCORE AND THE SEVERITY OF ACUTE PPENDICITIS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objective:</strong>To determine the association between Alvarado score and the severity of acute appendicitis in an East Coast Hospital, Malaysia. <strong>Methods</strong>: The cross-sectional study involved reviewing the record of all 177 Patients operated for suspected acute appendicitis in the hospital. Data were collected using a proforma. The severity of appendicitis was divided into perforated or non-perforated from the histo-pathological examination reports. Alvarado score recorded during the presentation to hospital was recorded. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to determine the association between Alvarado score and the severity of acute appendicitis. <strong>Results: </strong>Prevalence of perforated appendicitis was 25.1%. The mean of Alvarado score was 7.5 (SD: 1.35).&nbsp; Multiple logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between Alvarado score and severity of acute appendicitis after adjusting for age, gender and duration of pain before presentation.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Higher Alvarado score is associated with higher odds of perforation. Therefore, Alvarado score could be used not just for diagnostic purpose, but also for predicting the severity of appendicitis.</p> Asraf Ahmad Qamruddin Azizul Hadi Ahmad Abdul Malek Mohamad Hamzah Sukiman Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 4 4 ICU NURSES’ PERCEIVED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AND PRACTICE ON ENDOTRACHEAL SUCTIONING: A PRELIMINARY STUDY AT AHOSPITAL IN PAHANG, MALAYSIA <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Endotracheal suctioning isa common procedure for intubated patients typically seen in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).&nbsp; Although several studies regarding the knowledge and practice of endotracheal suctioning among nurses were conducted internationally, the status of the procedurein Malaysia is unknown. <strong>Objectives: </strong>To assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice on endotracheal suctioning and the relationship between each variable. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted via convenient sampling at two ICUs using a set of questionnaire that consisted of fourparts pertaining to sociodemographic data, knowledge items, attitude items, and practice items following ethical approvals. The data obtained were analysedfor descriptive and inferential assessmentsusing SPSS. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 77 nurses responded to the questionnaire (response rate 100%). A moderate positive relationship between knowledge and attitude were identified (r=0.514, p=0.000), whilea weak positive relationship was observedbetween knowledge and practice (r=0.408, p=0.000). A negligible correlation was also observed between attitude and practice (r=0.269, p=0.018). <strong>Discussion:</strong>From the study, the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice were found to be related to each other. Theresults have shown that age does not representthe score gain in knowledge, attitude, and practice questions. Similarly, the score gain was not affected whether the nurses had a post-basicbackground or not. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is a relationship between knowledge, attitude, and practice on endotracheal suctioning among ICU nurses. There is no relationship between socio-demographic data (age, working experience and post-basic) with knowledge, attitude and practice on endotracheal suctioning. A good practice score were seen in this study compared to the knowledge and attitude score among ICU nurses in HTAA Kuantan. Most of the ICU nurses in the HTAA Kuantan exhibited an excellent practice on endotracheal suctioning.</p> Aimi Nabila Afandi Salizar Mohamed Ludin Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 4 4 A STUDY TO IDENTIFY THE PERCEIVED STRESS AMONG FIRST YEAR BASIC B SC. NURSING STUDENTS IN A SELECTED COLLEGE OF NURSING IN KOLKATA (WEST BENGAL) <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Purpose</strong>: To explore the experience of the first year basic B Sc. nursing students, who are exposed to the clinical field of nursing and nursing profession for the first time and describe their sense of perceived stress. <strong>Objective</strong>: To assess the perceived stress among the first year basic B Sc. nursing students and to find out association between perceived stress and demographic variables. <strong>Method:</strong> A descriptive survey approach was taken at selected college of nursing. Total 67samples selected through non probability convenience sampling technique. A structured questionnaire used for demographic variables. The data was collected through the standardized tool of Cohen’s perceived stress scale along with the rating scale of stress checklist. <strong>Result:</strong> Major findings of the study was found that out of 67 students, maximum of 43.8 28% have monthly family income of below Rupees 5000, 79.11% of the students were away from home first time, 20.89% students had factors like could not pursue other courses and 88.05% has never been exposed to the hospital environment before. Based on the stress score, 73.14% students whose score was between 11 to 20, were found to have mild stress. 23.8℅ whose score was between 21 to 30 had moderate stress and 2.98 ℅ students who scored between 0 to 10 were undergoing the least level of stress. It is recommended that further studies can be done with larger sample size and or among students of other professional courses. <strong>Conclusion/Outcome:</strong> The investigator observed that there was significant Association between perceived level of stress and the presence of precipitating factors i.e away from home first time, could not pursue other courses and monthly family income{chi square(2)=5.99 ,P &lt;0.05}. Other than this there was no significant Association between perceived stress with other selected variables.</p> Ranu Bag Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 4 4 COVID-19 PANDEMIC IS A RENEWED CALL FOR ‘SPEAKING UP FOR HAND HYGIENE <p style="text-align: justify;">As of the 31<sup>st</sup> July 2020, more than&nbsp; 17 million confirmed COVID-19 cases with over 668k deaths have been reported worldwide (World Health Organisation (WHO), 2020). The COVID-19 virus is genetically similar to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) (Nussbaumer‐Streit <em>et al</em><em>., </em>2020; Zhao <em>et al</em><em>.,</em> 2020). However, initial investigations of the basic reproduction number (Ro) of COVID-19 shows higher transmissibility than SARS and MERS (Zhao <em>et al</em><em>.</em>,2020). The mode of transmission of COVID-19 is mainly through close contacts via droplets from human to human (World Health Organisation (WHO), 2020). Whilst researchers around the world are focused on developing a vaccine for COVID-19, transmission preventative measures become the most effective means of response.</p> Noor Azizah Mohd Ali Thudawe Yohani Shavindi Dalugoda Emma L Ballard Jacqueline Jauncey-Cooke RN Fiona Bogossian Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 4 4 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CHAIRPERSON'S LEADERSHIP STYLE AND THE STRESS OF THE ACTING NURSE <p style="text-align: justify;">Nurses have complex levels of work stress. The level of boredom, job recovery and feeling depressed are factors that trigger work stress. Job stress occurs because of the imbalance between personality characteristics with the characteristics of the aspects of work and can occur in all jobs Leadership style can be interpreted as a special feature of the form of leadership consisting of 3 leadership styles, namely autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. This study discusses the relationship of leadership style with work stress levels. This research was conducted by descriptive analytic method with cross sectional research design. The study was conducted from June to August 2018. The sampling technique used was total sampling as many as 76 people. Data analysis techniques used the chi-square test. The results showed the leadership style used by the head of the room (80.3%) coordination, (15.8%) authoritarian, and (3.9%) Laissez-faire (free relations). The work stress of implementing nurses (68.4%) is high and (31.6%) low. There is an interesting relationship between leadership style with the work stress of implementing nurses, with a value of p = 0.016. The conclusion of this study is that most of the head of rooms use a supportive leadership style with high stress levels. Suggestions from this study, leadership that can support the leadership style that is applied to the policies and requirements in the room and nurses can get special training to overcome the stress problems experienced by nurses at work.</p> Sondang Manurung Zuriati Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 4 4 THE EFFECT OF GIVING EEL FLOUR (MONOPTERUS ALBUS) WITH LEVELS TO THE ACCELERATION OF FRACTURE HEALING PROCESS AT RATTUS NOVERGICUS WISTAR ALBINO JANTAN <p style="text-align: justify;">World Health Organization (WHO) noted that there were more than 2 million people who suffered from fractures in 2017. The comparison of the results of the 2007 Riskesdas with the 2013 Riskesdas showed a tendency to increase fracture prevalence from 7.5% to 8.2% (Riskesdas, 2013). (Sabiton, 2016) says that fracture treatment can be done by recognition, reduction, retention and rehabilitation. According to (Faizah, 2015) Nutrients that contain high protein according to the needs can help the fracture healing process. Eels have a lot of nutrients, such as phosphate, calcium, protein, collagen and amino acids that can help bone growth. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of giving eel flour (Monopterus Albus) with multilevel content to the acceleration of male healing process of Rattus Novergicus Fracture of Wistar Albino. This research is an experimental study with post test only control group design. This research was conducted in May-June 2019 in the Laboratory of Anatomy of Stikes Piala Sakti Pariaman. The sampling technique was purposive sampling technique with many samples 24 rats. The results of the ANOVA test have the effect of giving eel flour to the acceleration of the fracture healing process with a value of = 0,000, followed by Post Hoc LSD to determine the test of significant differences between groups. The higher the dose of flour, the faster the fracture healing process. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that consuming eel flour can accelerate the process of fracture healing. Need to do further testing to humans as an effort to test the safety of the dose.</p> Yesi Maifita Zuriati Rena Oktafiyanti Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 4 4 STIMULATION OF DAIRY MILK ON ACTIVE MANAGEMENT KALA III ON TIME OF PLACENTA DISPOSAL <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Introduction: </strong>Actually, more than 90% of postpartum hemorrhage cases occurring within 24 hours after delivery are caused by uterine atony, one of the factors causing uterine atony due to errors in active management of the third phase such as inappropriate oxytocin administration time. Stimulation of nipple can produce oxytocin naturally and this oxytocin can shorten the time of placental release. This study aims to determine the influence of nipple stimulation on the active management of phase III to the placenta release time. <strong>Methods: </strong>The method in this study was quasi experimental with post test design only non equivalent control group. Samples in this study were 32 physiological maternal with phase III who were divided into two groups with non probability sampling technique with purposive sampling type. <strong>Results: </strong>The results in this study, there was a difference in placental release time, in the release intervention placental group faster than the control group and the result was ρ value &lt; 0,001 (&lt;0,05). <strong>Conclusions: </strong>there is an effect of mother's nipple stimulation on the active management of phase III to the time of placental release.</p> Aries Abiyoga Tuti Meihartati Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 4 4 EFFECTIVENESS OF A PLANNED TEACHING PROGRAMME ON RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS <p style="text-align: justify;">A quasi – Experimental study was undertaken to evaluate the work entitled “A study to evaluate the effectiveness of a planned teaching programme on risk factors and symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease among school teachers of selected higher secondary school at rural area in Nadia district, West Bengal.” The objectives of the study were to develop and validate the planned teaching programme on risk factors and symptoms of Coronary heart disease, to determine the knowledge of school teachers regarding risk factors and symptoms of coronary heart disease before and after administration of PTP and to evaluate the effectiveness of PTP in terms of gain knowledge score. The conceptual framework for the present study was based on general system theory consists of 3 phases such as Input, processing and output. Purposive sampling technique was followed to select 30 teachers of Sarishadanga Dr. Shyamaprasad Higher Secondary School. One group pre-test post-test design was adopted for the study. The tools used for the study were background Performa &amp; Structure knowledge Questionnaire, adopted technique was Questioning (paper &amp; pencil method) for collecting background data &amp; knowledge of the samples. Data were collected before and after administration of planned teaching. The findings of the study revealed that maximum score range of pre-test knowledge of the school teachers is in the range of 14-15 i.e.26.66% and in post-test the maximum score range of knowledge of the school teachers is in the range of 20 -21 i.e. 34.48%, SD of pre-test is 5.369 and SD of post-test is 2.619, the mean difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge score is 8.03. There was significant difference in post-test knowledge score than the pre-test [‘t’ d. f. (29) = 7.266]</p> Suprabha Majumder Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 4 4