Malaysian Journal of Medical Research (MJMR) 2021-01-14T04:26:10+00:00 Excetuive Editor Open Journal Systems <p style="float: left; padding-right: 30px;"><img style="width: 280px; max-height: 100%;" src="/public/site/images/admin/MJMR-cover3.jpg"></p> <p style="text-align: justify; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;">Malaysian Journal of Medical Research (MJMR) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, quarterly, journal published by Lincoln University College, Asia Pacific Higher Learning Sdn Bhd. MJMR provides an opening for research scientists in areas of Health Sciences.<br>MJMR is an open access, online, double blind peer reviewed international journal with a primary objective to provide research and applications related to all the health sciences in the fields of Medicine, Biology, Dentistry, Medical Education, Physiotherapy, Pharmacy, and Nursing. Our objective is to encourage new research ideas and promote practical application from the research findings. The journal publishes original research, review articles, case reports of such high quality as to attract contributions from the relevant international communities.</p> <h3>Topics of interest to MJMR readers include:</h3> <p style="margin-top: -20px; text-align: justify;">1. Anatomy&nbsp; 2. Physiology&nbsp; 3. Bio-chemistry&nbsp; 4. Pathology&nbsp; 5. Microbiology&nbsp; 6. Forensic Medicine&nbsp; 7. Medicine&nbsp; 8. Surgery&nbsp; 9. Pediatric&nbsp; 10. Obstetrics&nbsp; 11. Gynecology&nbsp; 12. Ophthalmology&nbsp; 13. ENT&nbsp; 14. Orthopedics&nbsp; 15. Community medicine&nbsp; 16. Public health and other field associated with medicines</p> AIRWAY MANAGEMENT IN A PATIENT WITH AN INCIDENTAL FINDING OF VALLECULAR CYST DURING INDUCTION OF GENERAL ANESTHESIA 2020-12-28T05:26:26+00:00 Io Camille D. Garcia Mark Gilbert S. Milallos <p style="text-align: justify;">Vallecular cysts are benign retention cysts of the minor salivary glands and the most common site is the lingual surface of epiglottis, which causes distortion to the epiglottis when increased in size and eventually fill the vallecular that can block the laryngeal inlet causing severe respiratory distress. Although not common this is a potentially dangerous condition that causes stridor and this has been associated with sudden airway obstruction resulting to death.&nbsp; This is a case of a 9-day old male neonate referred from General Surgery as a direct to Operating Room case due to imperforate anus. He is full term, delivered normally via vaginal delivery with a birth weight of 3kg. Upon administration of general anesthesia, the vallecular cyst was initially identified and during the PACU stay of the patient, stridor was noted after extubation, which resulted reintubation to stabilize him. Appropriate referral was made and a confirmed diagnosis of vallecular cyst was made. Patient then underwent marsupialization of the cyst. In conclusion, the presence of vallecular cysts poses a challenge to anesthesiologists especially on incidental findings during the administration of general anesthesia. They must be familiar with the algorithms of care for patients with vallecular cysts and should have necessary skills in identifying signs of distress to avoid unfavorable circumstances and demise.</p> 2021-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EXAMINING THE DIFFERENCES IN AUTISM QUOTIENT SCORES BASED ON ETHNICITY 2020-12-28T05:41:03+00:00 Shamsuddeen Nasir Shehu Sadiya Tahir Abdullahi Dahiru Abdulmalik A. Lawan <p>Definitive explanations on the associations between demographics and cause as well as the cure of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are yet to be known due to the unavailability of universal datasets and cost-effective diagnostic measures. This study analyzed large ASD screening data to examine whether symptoms of ASD differ based on ethnicity. The result showed a significant difference in the Autism Quotient (AQ) scores based on ethnicity among children, adolescents, and adults. Higher internal consistency was recorded on self-reported cases. This study will advance understanding of the influence of demographics on ASD symptoms. It is suggested that future studies should improve the reliability of AQ as screening tool.</p> 2021-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS AND LONG-TERM RISK OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG CIVIL SERVANT: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY 2020-12-28T05:48:34+00:00 Aulia Putri Junaidy Suparman Rustam <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong>The high incidence rate of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among Indonesian productive age populationsignificantly affects the quality of the human capital in this country. Thus, it is highly necessary to manage and to prevent the onset of DM by identifying its risk factors, both direct and indirect ones. One of these factors is psychological stress, which triggers increased level of the body's fight-or-flight hormone making the body release extra energy in the form of glucose and fat into cells. The long term psychological stress prevents the insulin fromenabling the extra energy to be absorbed into the cells thereby leading the glucose to build up in the blood. Therefore, it is important to identify the psychological stress in the attempt to avoid the future incidence of DM. <strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the association between psychological stress and risk of type 2 DM among male and female civil servants. <strong>Methods</strong>: A prospective cohort study was conductedin 190 participants (aged 26-45 years) of six civil department services in Bukittinggi city, West Sumatra Indonesia. Data were collected for 3 times measurements by using Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS)and Framingham Offspring Type 2 Diabetes Risk Score (FRS). The Spearman rho was used to analyze the inferential statistic. <strong>Results: </strong>Result of the study showed there was a strong relationship between psychological stress and the risk of type 2 DM at baseline (RR = 0.46 , p&lt; .05) and the coefficient of determinant showed 22%. Same as on 2nd and 3rd measurements were found that the p-values are &lt; .05, while the determinant coefficient were 33% and 19%, respectively. <strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>The evidence reflected that a long term stress or uncontrol psychological stress for a sufficiently long period might disturb insuline regulation in the body, which in turn increases the risk of developing type 2 DM, especially on productive aged.</p> 2021-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 THE INCIDENCE OF BREAKING-UP WITH WOMEN ENGENDERS MEN HAVING SEX WITH MEN 2020-12-28T06:35:40+00:00 Feny Wartisa Aldo Yuliano Mas Putra <p style="text-align: justify;">MSM (men having sex with men) is counted for almost 17% of new HIV infections in the world. It revealedof MSM prevalence with HIV infection in Indonesia increased 2.5 times since 2013. Meanwhile, HIV prevalence in West Sumatra with MSM 2018 recorded36% on risk factors. Bukittinggi, one of the biggest cities in those areas, is having the highest incidence rate (18.1%) against the population ratio on HIV positive cases. Thisstudy aims to determine the association of biological factors, a history of a breakup with female partners, peers influence, parenting styles, family father figures, history of sexual violence, history of migration, and utilization of social media on men who have sex with men incidence. This analytical study onthe mixed-method methodologyapplied a cross-sectional approach involving 456 population which recruited 69 people as a research sample. Using snowball sampling, questionnaires were mediated as data accumulation which then was analyzed using the Spearman Rho test. It verified that biological factors (p=0.044, r=0.243) and a breaking up with women status (p=0.000, r = -0.558) indicated of MSM incidence. On the other hand, peer relations, parenting style, lack of father's role in the family, the history of sexual violence, migrating status, and social media exertion showed no significant relation to MSM incidents. Eventually, it should embroil the parents, teachers, and related agency's role to reduce the MSM stimulation in the community, and reciprocally will decrease the chain of HIV/AIDS transmission.</p> 2021-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 POSSIBLE IMPACT OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER AND INDOOR STAYING BEHAVIOUR IN WINTER ON SARS-COV-2 TRANSMISSION: AN EXPLORATORY REVIEW 2020-12-29T11:30:56+00:00 Sajal Bhattacharya Shakya Sinha Tanuka Ghosh Rina Tilak <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The COVID-19 pandemic caused by a zoonotic virus - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) demands knowledge about the impact of environmental factors in the epidemiology of the disease. Lower air temperature and lower humidity could be associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission like other human coronaviruses (HCoVs). The higher stability of SARS-CoV-2 in lower temperature is also reinforcing this assumption. In winter, the levels of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) remains significantly high which could act as a mechanical transport vector for SARS-CoV-2 apart from its role as a pollutant that causes inflammation in the lungs and contribute to the severity of COVID-19. Moreover, inhaling small airborne droplets is also a probable transmission route for SARS-CoV-2 and this could be significant during longer indoor staying behavior in winter. Asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 are also evident. High population density in urban areas forces more people to share common space inside houses, thus creating a possible virogenic environment. It is postulated that the changes in human behavior, such as staying relatively more time indoors, and the increased stability of SARS-CoV-2 during the winter months along with higher atmospheric PM concentration may develop a favorable situation for SARS-CoV-2 transmission.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2021-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICAL HEALTH PROBLEMS ALONG WITH RISK FACTORS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF THE VICTIMS ATTENDING POST-DISASTER MEDICAL CARE FACILITY AT UTTARAKHAND, INDIA 2021-01-14T04:26:10+00:00 Anita Paul Samanta Ansuman Mitra <p style="text-align: justify;">A retrospective medical record analysis was done to identify the physical problems, related risk factors, and psychological problems faced by flood affected victims of Uttarakhand. The main aim of the study is to disintegrate the information related to the impact of the disasters on people and sustainable environment, which can be prevented with appropriate preparedness and measures.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A total of 2311 patients were taken care. Of these, (41.8%) were middle-aged (18–50 years), 35% were below 18 years, and 23.2% of them were above 50 years of age. 26.76% of them suffering from RTI, 25.33% from GI problems, 10.84% had dental problems, and 10.41% skin problems.7.41% of the victims had orthopedic problems, 5.75% ENT issues, 5.48% eye infections, 4.68% CVS problems. Again this is to be noted that 3.34 % of them were suffering from UTI.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Data also depicted that 39.88 % of the people was suffering from acute stress disorder. Identified risk factors were unavailability of safe drinking water, food, gathering of the victims in a small or uncovered space, severe financial losses and loss of the near and dear one respectively. The victims received health care and treatment for a period of one year. People suffering from severe illness were transferred to the tertiary care hospital. The caregivers also suffered from diarrhea and fever occasionally.</p> 2021-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021