The Impact of Reproductive Health on Female Victims of Violence by Partners

Erika Agung Mulyaningsih*1, Septiana Juwita2, Niken Bayu Argaheni2, Septi Fitrah N1

1Stikes Pemkab Jombang, Pandanwangi Highway, Diwek, Jombang District, 61471, Indonesia

2Sebelas Maret University, Kentingan, Kec. Jebres, Kota Surakarta, Jawa Tengah, 57126, Indonesia

*Corresponding Author’s Email:


One of three women has experienced violence, including that perpetrated by their partners. Violence against women is a violation of rights and has terrible impacts on health and reproduction. This research aims to understand the reproductive health impacts of women who have experienced violence. This study uses qualitative research methods and narrative stories from survivors of partner violence. Informants were obtained in a manner directly by researchers and also through the Women Crisis Center. A study was held for three months in the district of Jombang, East Java. Violence against women impacts reproductive health problems such as unwanted pregnancy, an effort to abort, treatment violence during pregnancy, no existing support, and rape committed by a partner. We need comprehensive care in assessing women's reproductive health, including vigilance against existing treatment violence experienced by women from partners.

Keywords: Violence Against Women; Violence by Partners; Health Reproduction


Violence against women perpetrated by a partner is a global problem that has a significant impact on health. Krug (2002) defines partner violence as all behavior that can cause damage, physical, psychological, or sexual, by those who are in a relationship.<

A report from the National Commission on Violence Against Women for 2020 shows that part of the immense experience of Indonesian women's violence is on the structure of low social, so this becomes the answer to why the problem is violence against women as if No problem, big and lean, no one seen. Limitations resource Good insights and materials were needed because women did not have enough knowledge and awareness to be treated as equal individuals to men. Ideology patriarchy in Indonesia causes injustice in various fields: good education, economics, politics, the existence of negative labeling, double burden, and also violence. (Jadi, 2021)

Violence at weddings has an impact on love. Darling fellow member families, obedience in worship, communication disputes, and dialogue between member families (Ramadhan & Nurhamlin, 2018)<. Facts about the health of mothers and children reported by WHO in 2013 convey that 4 out of 10 women report that pregnancy, no planned intervention health essential late in 40% of pregnancies, Deficiency nutrition and deficiency anemia increase the risk of death by as much as 20%. In 2010, 58,000 BBL died because of tetanus. Women increased mortality in neonates by 15-55%, perinatal mortality by 50% taller between children of _mothers aged <20 years, 35% of pregnancies with infection gonococcal, which does not treat, resulting in LBW, premature births up to 10%, violence against women resulted in enhancement risk birth premature and LBW, Stop smoking before and during pregnancy to avoid 5-7% mortality. Because premature death and 23-24% of cases of sudden death occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic occurred, violence against women experienced an increase as a "hidden pandemic" (Nagashima-Hayashi et al., 2022).

Cases of violence against women are still one of the main issues in sustainable development; women in many countries still experience discrimination from different backgrounds. 1 in 3 girls aged 15–49 experiences physical violence and violent sex from their partner. Women are especially vulnerable to experiencing violent sex and problems in reproduction, e.g., a pregnancy that is not unwanted, poor maternal and child health, illness, infectious sex, and problems in gynecology; violence done by the partner before or during pregnancy can cause abortion, birth-death, premature parturition, and LBW (World Health Organization, 2016).

Komnas Perempuan noted 2,500 cases of violence against women in January–July 2021. Figure it out. Go beyond 2020 records, which recorded 2,400 cases. There are 2,500 cases of violence against women throughout 2021 (Mustafainah et al., 2020). The SDGs report stated that 1 in 3 women experience verbal and non-verbal violence, including violence and sexual intercourse by their partner. Violence against women also occurs during pregnancy and other times. This risk occurs during birth due to prematurity and LBW in the fetus. Cultural patriarchy has already taken root for hundreds of years because women do not understand the rights of reproduction in the family, including a suitable base as a man or being treated similarly to a man. Besides cultural patriarchy, there are many underlying reasons why women are prone to violence in the household, among them that boys and girls do not know their rights. Women in households experience in a manner natural treatment, violence to women, low education, as well as helplessness in a manner economy, and low empowerment for women to fulfill the rights of reproduction and as an individual girl.

Indonesians with a variety of public needs need an exact solution in order of degrees. Indonesian women can use the equivalent of the boy, and the girl knows her rights and is already adequate, and a home is a comfortable place for everyone to grow and develop. Still, a few years before the SDGs report in 2030, Indonesia must innovate to accelerate the achievement of the SDGs.

There were 41 cases of domestic violence received by WCC Jombang, of which 17 ended in divorce. 35 victims experienced violence psychically, 39 victims experienced neglect, four victims experienced marital rape, and 21 victims experienced physical violence. Throughout 2021, three cases of domestic violence entered the realm of crime. However, only two cases were completed in the decision process, and one case must be stopped because of limitations in the evidence. Efforts to find a solution require a discussion with the government village. Some of the other victims cannot demand accountability from the perpetrator. To fulfill his obligations, so often in neglect cases, the victim will be chosen to pursue civil (divorce) litigation. WCC Jombang, 2022). Case partner violence can be husband did nor boyfriend. In 2021, the data handled by WCC Jombang recorded as many as 22 cases of violence against wives (KTI) and 7 cases of violence in dating (KDP).

Various efforts For the declining death rate, mother and baby endeavor, various parties working in the health field will focus primarily on the healthy physique. Social problems faced by women precisely do not get attention from institutions, while the observers said that women have limitations in field health. There must be a comprehensive effort made by institutions because women must be looked at in an intact manner as bio-psychosocial and spiritual beings.


A qualitative study with type studies the case of a narrative story, which seven survivors delivered about partner violence. Informants were obtained in a manner directly by researchers and also through the Women Crisis Center. A study was held for three months (June–August 2022) in the district of Jombang, East Java.

Informant as a source of data obtained through the purposive sampling method with n criteria:

reporting a woman, state, or tell that he gets partner violence. Formal violence can be in the form of verbal, non-verbal, sexual, etc.

a. Data was collected from interviews with women affected by partner violence. Data triangulation was performed to WCC did _ assistance to victims of violence. Instrument in study This is an open interview in accordance with guidelines and a questionnaire made by researchers. As well done observation with recordings aspect emotions when communicating. Data analysis follows Clarke and Braun's theme, which is a decisive seven-stage data analysis.

Guidelines Interview:




When did you first receive treat partner violence?

Is Once experience matters similar to that done by others, if ever when the matter that happened?

Intensity and shape

How often do partners do violence? What form of partner violence


From violence, what is the most frequent partner?


Pho perpetrator violence?

Is someone else knows to matter this?

Is anyone else besides couples who do violence?

Attitude subject

How is your attitude to the treatment?

What efforts have you made to overcome the matter? What hope are you in a pair?

Reason report

Why do you have the courage to report? What are you expect from a report?

What perceived obstacles during reporting?

What feelings of fear/anxiety during giving reporting?

Reproductive health

Do you understand the rights of reproduction, girl?

Is violence happen while you are pregnant or post giving birth? Did you get support during pregnancy and post-giving birth?

Have you ever gotten coercion to relate sexually?

Have you ever experienced complaints in the genitalia area, such as existing vaginal discharge, itching, blisters, pain, or bleeding? If so, what did you do?

Have you ever rejected pregnancy? If so, what are your reasons, and what do you do?


During process research, there were 7 respondents in the category of survivors of domestic violence who have gotten accompaniment from NGOs and are willing to open up a moment for an interview. The research process went on for three months, placing at-home clients at the Jombang NGO office. The researchers used the techniques of deep interviewing the client, data triangulation with companions from Jombang NGOs, and observing the attitude and style of talking the client into conveying the story. Ecological factors influence incidents of violence against women: society, environment, relationships, and individuals. There are norms in an accepting society that put men in control of women—yes, the reception that violence is a method to end conflict and gender inequality, as well as the presumption that men might also be seen dominating women (Heise, 1998). Especially in Indonesia, gender bias accounts for a large share of violence against women (So, 2018).

A related problem of health reproduction in cases of domestic violence, there are grouping facts as follows:



Pregnancy demanding youth _ happen, wedding teenagers,

Reproductive health

Pregnancy No wanted

Reproductive health

No, understanding of How to prevent pregnancy

Reproductive health

No use of contraception in the right way

Reproductive health

Try to accept violence many times with reason shame family


There are attempts to maintain weddings as social status


Violence, both verbal and non-verbal


No be supported in a manner economy


Experience violence physique


Effort For aborting pregnancy


Reject pregnancy by giving the child to other people

Physical, Psychological, and Social

Fighting inside the house in front of children and lingering grief _


Feel threatened and humiliated

Psychological and social

Clients face negative stigma in society


Helplessness in a manner economy so that willing To make connection sexual with other people

Reproductive health, psychological

Beating moment woman currently pregnant, feel no supported, not cared for, and burdened double, must still carry out work in the household. However, the condition physique currently pregnancy and the puerperium precisely need help.

Physical, psychological

Wedding teenagers (10–19 years) have a consequence problem in the economy; women face poverty because they do not get access to proper education, so their knowledge and skills are lacking for work. Besides that, the consequence is violence between in-laws and couples. Violence was experienced by respondent 2 while staying together with his father-in-law. Violence has a significant psychological impact on both the client and the child.

The main reasons for violence against women in Indonesia are ideology, patriarchy, and gender bias as mechanisms of exploitative development. (Afandi, 2019)

On condition, clients with an unwanted pregnancy needed some effortful accompaniment even until the baby was born because clients also have a risk of depression post-birth. Unwanted pregnancy has a considerable risk for the mother and fetus too. Violence against women has no direct or long- term beneficial effect on the health of women or children (WHO, 2013).

"When pregnancy was eight months old, my husband slapped me. Even with all work in the house must, I did it myself. Though my stomach was bigger and harder to move, I still had to go up to the 2nd floor to bring the laundry to dry. My husband does not want to know... "

A report from UNFPA (2013) revealed that Indonesia ranked 5th as a country where its citizens own a child under the age of 18. Wedding teenagers are not only impacted by a rejection of something pregnancy-related; they are often isolated in a social manner, disconnected from family and friends they should support in a social manner. Lost the chance to continue their education and the opportunity to get a job. They are also vulnerable to sex-safe rape, disease infection, infectious sex, and pregnancy youth, which raise the mother's risk and the fetus's risk (Edilberto & Mengjia, 2013).

"Once now, husband, I was with another girl. I knocked door room and saw a girl inside the room; I said, "Go on! ( related sexual ). After finished, I will o'clock your head with a helmet" And me waiting for him outside room, after done ( related sexually), I o'clock his head wearing a helmet, head wounded and bleeding. Then I between to house sick, i.e., say that he experienced the accident."

Starting from pregnancy that is not desired exists impacts advanced form violence experienced by women. Violence can happen because of physical, economic, social, and psychological. Partner is not yet ready to become a parent. However, not all women victims of violence can make a decision. For parted needs, sex is one reason why Women maintain their marriage

"Me already trapped economy, dependent so much; whom can I do so you can get a lot of money by accepting solicitation Friend I, as LC, of course, Once requested do a relationship ( sexual ), yes, But Because it is forced, I need Money. . ”

The facts show there is violence during pregnancy, add row-long problems in healthy women, gender inequality in house stairs, and their acceptance by society as well. Women will treat the bravery of women to maintain their rights and report or speak to the public as a form of rejection of violence. For maternal health, this is very detrimental, but part of the big case No can netted moment visit antenatal, focus various antenatal services line Still put forward monitoring like maternal and fetal vital signs as well as other related checks with the condition of the mother and fetus. Whereas problem violence is often not excavated and recorded as something that must be resolved, Global initiatives for reducing the death of mothers and raising health must give attention to violence against women, particularly during pregnancy (Devries et al., 2010).

Ending marriage for teenagers can help cross generations to end poverty for girls. Empowerment and education for children and women can positively impact children and a healthy family (Sinha et al., 2013).


Based on the study, they concluded that violence against women perpetrated by a partner impacts physical, psychological, social, and psychological health and harms reproduction. Unpreparedness to face pregnancy at a young age triggers internal conflict and leads to violence perpetrated by a partner. In an effort to prevent the marriage, teenagers No Enough Only Exists Regulation Constitution Marriage must be supported by other programs to enhance knowledge about healthy reproduction, the rights of reproduction, and various obstacles and attempts to settle. Handle violence with your partner intimately. Women need to approach the target community. Change between the norms of men and women improves the status of women (Benebo et al., 2018).

Empowerment of women in a manner of the economy is also necessary because dependency in a manner of the financial system puts limitations on space motion girls. Problems with health such as reproduction, experiencing violence, and being pregnant must get comprehensive help from a doctor or midwife. The focus on maternal health is not only on symptoms and clinical findings from the patient but also on the necessary excavation of more information from the psychologist about the patient's condition, her reception to her pregnancy, as well as the constraints on social gain during pregnancy. The risk of experiencing problems with sex is also found because of helplessness in a manner that encourages those who decide to do impactful work to connect sexually with other people. Violence against women impacts physical, psychological, sexual, social, and economic issues. Sexual problems can happen, among them painful or tool pain in sex, sexual trauma, damage to reproductive organs, cycles, disorders, and infectious sexual infection (Jadi, 2021).

Low education, alcohol consumption, history of family violence behavior, having more than one partner, disability in making decisions, as well as marriage too young, are individual factors that can increase incident violence against women (Muluneh et al., 2021).

Violence against women No Can be seen as a problem with secure private and public access to give help and support, precisely needed exists support more community broad for the prevention of violence (Abramsky et al., 2016), although it turns out lots of women can accept and open after being offered help for finish problems encountered (Hall et al., 2014). Preventing violence should become a priority in public health (Coker et al., 2000), and precisely what is the culture among teenagers to prevent hardness (Exner-Cortens et al., 2021). Efforts cannot stop intervening in women's perception of how men treat women and also need intervention to prevent violence by building knowledge and training (Christofides et al., 2020).


Violence against women has a very detrimental impact on healthy reproduction, especially the health of mothers and sons. Health workers can be more alert to problems. They already should be, as issues such as socially related health and reproduction can be monitored more thoroughly. Mothers who are pregnant should provide comprehensive care. Not only a related problem to pregnancy (health physique course) but also a psychological and social problem faced by the mother pregnant and will members impact pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding, and the health of the baby poorly.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.


The authors are thankful to the institutional authority for completion of the work.


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