Influential Elements Identification of Memorable Culinary Tourism in Bandung City

Artin Ar. Hermawanti

School of Architecture Planning and Policy Development, Bandung Institute of Technology, Kota Bandung, Jawa Barat 40132, Indonesia.

Corresponding Author’s Email:


As one of the tourist destinations in West Java, the city of Bandung also has many other tourism potentials apart from urban tourism, which is the main tourism sector. Bandung is one of the cities designated as a leading culinary tourism destination by the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy, along with several other cities in Indonesia. This study aims to identify the attractiveness of culinary tourism in the city of Bandung. This research was conducted using a descriptive-qualitative method. As a result, the city of Bandung has fulfilled the elements of a memorable culinary tourism experience, namely food and drink, location and setting, companions, occasions, and touristic elements.

Keywords: Culinary Tourism, Attraction; Elements of Memorable Culinary Tourism Experience; Bandung


Tourism has now become a lifestyle. Traveling becomes a necessity to reduce boredom from routine. The tourism industry in Indonesia is a sector that contributes greatly to GDP (Gross Domestic Product), namely 4.2% in 2021 (KOMINFO, 2021). The tourism sector also contributes to the progress of the country's economy with its ability to provide new jobs, especially for people living around tourist areas. Therefore, the development of tourism in Indonesia needs to be continued.

One of the provinces in Indonesia that continues to develop its tourism industry is West Java Province, with a total of 47 million tourists in 2021, which shows an increase in tourist arrivals of 29% after a drastic decline in 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

West Java has various tourism potentials spread across all cities and regencies in the Province of West Java, such as Garut Regency, Tasikmalaya Regency, Sukabumi Regency, and Pangandaran Regency, which are the main destinations for marine tourism, as well as Bandung Regency and West Bandung Regency, which are leading ecotourism destinations and agrotourism in West Java Province (refer to table 1).

Table 1: Data on the number of tourists visits to West Java Province
















Source: West Java Open Data Tourism and Culture Office of West Java Province

Table 2: Data on the number of tourists visits to Bandung City













Source: West Java Open Data Tourism and Culture Office of West Java Province

As one of the tourist destinations in West Java, the city of Bandung also has many other tourism potentials apart from urban tourism, which is its top tourism sector.

Based on the data in Table 2, the number of tourists coming to the city of Bandung almost always reaches 10 million; this is not a small number, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Bandung is one of the cities designated as a leading culinary tourism destination by the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy, along with several other cities in Indonesia (Kemenparekraf/Baparekraf RI, 2021).

Figure 1: Number of Restaurants and Cafes in Bandung City

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Source: West Java Open Data Tourism and Culture Office of West Java Province

Eating activities may not only aim to fill the stomach. Food, which is a primary need, can now also be used as a means of gathering for the family. Places of entertainment are not only parks, mountains, and beaches, but restaurants can also be used as an alternative to have fun (figure 1).

Choe & Kim (2018) define culinary tourism as a trip where the main reason for going is to eat. Culinary tourism is based on food-related activities that people do outside of their homes (Moira, Mylonopoulos, & Kondoudaki, 2017; Nugroho & Putri, 2023). According to Ellis, et al. (2018), culinary tourism is a medium where tourists interact with and understand the cultural anthropology of the people and places, they visit.

Most people agree that eating is an important part of the tourist experience (Hall et al. 2004). Locally produced and served food is an attraction (World Tourism Organization, 2012). Local food can not only be a tourist attraction but also help shape the image of a destination (Cohen & Avieli, 2004; Du Rand & Heath, 2006).

Fei, Ni & Santini (2020) found that tourists are more likely to eat food made in the area where they are traveling. In this way, the local economy can be boosted by local food, which is considered an important factor in attracting visitors, and the sustainability of regional tourism can be ensured through field development work (Çapar & Yenipınar, 2016).

Consumer expectations for sustainable local food differ between developing and developed countries. This difference is related to cultural variability and economic development. We need a good understanding of tourist expectations, which form the basis of food consumption (Sidali, Spiller, & von Meyer-Hofer, 2016).

Food accounts for about a third of tourist spending on destination visits. Local food that represents the lifestyle and culture of the local people, created from the transfer of experience from generation to generation, attracts the attention of visitors so that regional gastronomy is known, and cultural heritage is revived. It is a source of pride for the locals, as well as offering visitors the opportunity to have an authentic experience. The acceptance of local food by tourists is important for local culture and the sustainability of the area. The choice of local food by visitors is a cultural activity and, on the other hand, extends the life of the tourist area (Kim & Eves, 2012). Especially in some areas, the high level of consumer perception of the product can increase the phenomenon and sustainability of tourism in the area (Vrontis et al. 2021).

Research Methodology

This research was conducted using a descriptive qualitative method, which according to Sugiyono (2016) is a research method that utilizes qualitative data that is described descriptively to describe existing phenomena, both natural and man-made, that pay more attention to characteristics, quality, and interrelationships. In this method, the researcher is the key instrument of combined data collection techniques, where data analysis is inductive or qualitative in nature, and the results of qualitative research emphasize meaning rather than generalization. The data used in this research is secondary data collected from e-books, scientific journals, news, and so on.


In a survey conducted by Stone, Soulard, Magicz, and Wolf (2017), the elements that influence a memorable culinary tourism experience are food and drink, location and setting, companions, occasions, and touristic elements.


Food or drink is the main actor in culinary tourism; therefore, food and drink have a big influence on the experience of tourists who do culinary tours. At the simplest level, memories can be generated from certain foods or drinks that are served. No single food characteristic consistently ranks as the most memorable. It may be food, drink, or dessert. The food may be lavish or simple. The food and beverage sub-elements are local food, authentic food, new food, unusual food, diverse food, and the quality of food service. Local food in tourist destinations is considered attractive by tourists because it is different from everyday food, thereby increasing the tendency to spend more money. In this sense, local food is seen as a useful tool for developing sustainable destinations and achieving sustainable tourism experiences (Zhang, Chen, & Hu, 2019).

  1. Local Food

    Local food is memorable, and it often mirrors iconic fare, including sushi in Yokohama, pizza dishes in Chicago, tom yam soup at a mall in Thailand and seafood at Loch Fyne Oyster Bar in Scotland.

  2. Authentic Food

    Authentic food is considered highly memorable, but it should be noted that "authenticity" is often defined by the traveller’s personal definition.

  3. Unusual/Bizarre Food

    Unusual or strange foods include eating wildebeest in Norway, guinea pigs in Peru, wild game in Africa, and unusual fruits and nuts in Thailand. Often, these strange foods are considered local, authentic, or new.

  4. Variety of Foods

    The abundance or variety of food also creates distinct memories. One American visitor to Cancun recalls "amazing food every night at a resort. Multi-cultural cuisine and different food every day. Lots of fresh food choices." As is the case in the city of Bandung, which not only provides local food but also provides many other food choices from various cultures, from Chinese food, Padang cuisine, Kupang cuisine, Manado cuisine, and Western food.

  5. Experience other Meals

    Experiences other than dining, including wine, beer, and alcohol experiences, coffee breaks, and desserts, are also frequently mentioned as memorable.

  6. Service

    Service can be just as memorable as the food or drinks. Often, the level of service is mentioned in relation to the food, so for many people, the food itself is inseparable from the way it is served.

    The following are local foods, authentic foods, and new foods that are the most popular and delicious in Greater Bandung, according to (Editorial Team IDN Times, 2021):

    1. Mie Kocok Bandung

      Mie Kocok is a beef broth-flavoured noodle dish typical of Bandung in which flat yellow noodles are served with bean sprouts, pieces of kikil (beef leg skin), and bone marrow and doused in beef broth. This food has been around since 1958. Some of the famous Mie Kocok shops and sellers are Mie Kocok Mang Dadeng, Mie Kocok Mang Nanang Tea, Mie Kocok Persib, and Mie Kocok Pasar Baru Mba Reni (refer to figure 1).

      Figure 1: Mie Kocok Bandung

      A bowl of food

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      Source: Pinterest

    2. Batagor

      Batagor is an acronym for Baso Tahu Goreng, which is a typical Bandung snack consisting of siomay (dumpling skin filled with soft fish batter) and white tofu with fish batter filling in the middle, which is then fried until crispy and served with peanut sauce and a little sweet soy sauce. Some of the famous Batagor sellers and shops are Batagor Haji Yunus, Batagor Haji Isan, Batagor and Cuanki Serayu, and Batagor Kingsley (refer to figure 2).

      Figure 2: Batagor

      A plate of food

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      Source: Pinterest

    3. Seblak

      Seblak is a snack that was originally only made from raw white crackers (babangi) which are processed by adding a little water and adding a special seblak seasoning consisting of shallots, garlic, galangal, chilies, salt, and sugar. However, over time, many seblak innovations have sprung up, starting from a wide selection of crackers, not just babangi crackers, to various toppings on offer, such as meatballs, sausages, chicken feet, crabsticks, etc.

      The most famous seblak seller/shops in Bandung based on Google's top searches are Seblak Sultan, Seblak Syahrini, and Seblak Mamah Aceng Bandung (refer to figure 3).

      Figure 3: (a) Original Seblak with Babangi Crackers, (b) Modern Mix Seblak

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      Source: Pinterest

    4. Karédok

      Karédok is a typical Sundanese side dish made from a variety of raw vegetables and seasoned with peanut sauce. The vegetables commonly used to make Karédok are cucumber, green eggplant, long beans, cabbage, bean sprouts, and basil leaves. The peanut sauce for Karédok is made of peanuts, brown sugar, garlic, cayenne pepper, kencur, and salt.Karedok can be eaten as a snack or as a side dish served with warm rice.

      According to the Go Travelly website (Angelin, 2019), the following are traders or restaurants selling delicious karedok: Sindang Reret Restaurant, Dapur Sangkuriang, Warung Nasi Ibu Imas, Karedok Lotek Katamso, Rumah Makan Rindu Kampung, and Warung Lotek Cihapit (Refer to figure 4).

      Figure 4: Karédok


      Source: Pinterest

    5. Nasi Tutug Oncom

      Nasi tutug oncom is a food made from warm rice mixed with ditutug (mashed in Sundanese) and Oncom (proceed fermented soybeans), which has previously been fried or grilled, and served with chicken or fried salted fish, tofu, tempeh, fresh vegetables, and chili sauce.

      The most famous Nasi Tutug Oncom on Google search is Nasi Tutug Oncom Bi Kokom, Nasi Tutug Oncom Bobotoh, and Nasi Tutug Oncom Teh Ita (refer to figure 5).

      Figure 5. Nasi Tutug Oncom

      A plate of food

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      Source: Pinterest

    6. Lotek

      Almost like Karédok, Lotek is a side dish consisting of a mixture of various vegetables seasoned with peanut sauce; it's just that all the vegetables used have been steamed first, so some people also call it Lotek asak (asak means cooked in Sundanese) (refer to figure 6).

      Figure 6: Lotek

      A plate of food

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      Source: Pinterest

    7. Surabi

      Surabi comes from Sundanese, which means 'big'. Surabi is a typical Sundanese culinary item that initially only had 2 variants, namely Surabi Oncom as a salty snack and Surabi Kinca as a sweet snack. Along with the times, now many Surabi flavor innovations are offered, ranging from chocolate, cheese, and durian to various vla.

      Surabi is made from rice flour dough mixed with coconut milk, then cooked in a mold made of clay, then baked over hot coals.

      According to Google searches, the most popular Surabi sellers/shops in Bandung are Waroeng Setiabudhi, Surabi Durian Geboy, Surabi Cihapit, Surabi Enhaii, and Warung Surabi Cihampelas (refer to figure 7).

      Figure 7: (a) Traditional Surabi & (b) Modern Surabi


      Source: Pinterest

    8. Horse Satay

      In addition to beef, goat, lamb, and chicken satay, in the city of Bandung, tourists can also enjoy tasty satay made from horse meat. One of the famous shops is Sate Kuda Original Bp. Awan R., which is on Jalan Banteng (refer to figure 8).

      Figure 8: Horse Satay

      A plate of food

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      Source: Pinterest

    9. Cobra Snake, Monitor Lizard, Monkey and Bat Meat Dishes.

Unusual dishes are also available in the city of Bandung, one of which is a dish of various reptiles, bats, and monkeys, which are sold in several places to eat. One of the famous ones is the Istana Raja Kobra, which is located on Jalan Jendra Sudirman in Bandung City and has more than 100 reviews on Google with a rating of 4.4 (refer to figure 9).

Figure 9: Cobra Soup

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Source: Pinterest

  1. Location/Setting

    Since tourism requires travel outside the usual environment, the key element of any tourism experience is where it takes place. Travelers often express how the environment contributes to memory. Generally, this might include an impressive restaurant, an impressive setting, or somewhere other than a restaurant.

    Location is one of the elements that influence a memorable culinary tourism experience. The impression that tourists get when they taste a dish in a fancy restaurant in the city centre will be very different from the impression that tourists get when they taste the same dish in a restaurant in the middle of the forest.

    Here are some culinary tourism locations in the city of Bandung:

    1. Famous/Iconic/Trendy Restaurant

      Famous or iconic restaurants are featured in television shows, movies, or through popular culture. They may also be known for the food they serve or their quality rating. Ranging from fine dining experiences to casual restaurants. According to the number of Google reviews, one of the well-known restaurants in Bandung is Karnivor Restaurant, followed by Ambrogio Patisserie, One Eighty Coffee and Music, and Lereng Anteng Panoramic Coffee (refer to figure 10).

      Figure 10: (a) Karnivor Restaurant, (b) Ambrogio Patisserie, (c) One Eighty Coffee and Music, & (d) Lereng Anteng Panoramic Coffee


      Source: Pergikuliner

    2. Theme Restaurant

      Themed restaurants place great emphasis on the atmosphere, including decorations, music, and lighting, as a selling point for consumers. It is reasonable to think that customers' perceptions of restaurant atmosphere may be influential in determining return intentions (Weiss, Feinstein & Dalbor, 2008).

      Several thematic restaurants and cafes in the city of Bandung, according to detikfood (Sari, 2020), are Dago Bakery Punclut, Mercusuar Café & Resto, Chingu Café, Picknick, and Popiatiam (refer to figure 11).

      Figure 11: (a) Dago Bakery Punclut, (b) Chingu Café, (c) Picknick, & (d) Popiatiam

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      Source: Pergikuliner

    3. Local Authentic Restaurant

      Tourists also point to the 'local' and 'authentic' nature of the restaurant. Memories are created because they feel unique to that environment.

      Several restaurants with local or authentic atmospheres and dishes are Mie Naripan, which has been established since 1965 and specializes in Yamin noodles, and Lesung Resto, which is located in the highlands of Bandung City and serves Sundanese dishes (refer to figure 12).

      Figure 12: (a) Mie Naripan, (b) Lisung Resto

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      Source: Pergikuliner

    4. Setting/View

      The setting or display can be just as memorable (if not more so) than the food itself. Tourists refer to certain elements that highlight the setting, iconic elements of a place, or even a special view. Thus, individuals may not remember the name of the restaurant, and some may not mention the food they ate.

      According to the PegiPegi website (Tracy, 2016), several restaurants and cafes with stunning settings or views in the city of Bandung are Café D'Pakar, Kopi Selasar, and Cocorico Café and Resto (refer to figure 13).

      Figure 13: (a) Kopi Selasar & (b) Cocorico Café and Resto

      Graphical user interface, application

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      Source: Pergikuliner

    5. Outdoor Dining

      An outdoor component is often included, where individuals can get a feel for the ambiance of the location. This can include a variety of elements, from urban to rural. According to Nibble's Guide (Lukmana, 2022), several restaurants with outdoor dining concepts in Bandung are 150 Coffee and Garden, Miss Bee Providore, and Nara Park (refer to figure 14).

      Figure 14: (a) 150 Coffee and Garden, (b) Miss Bee Providore, & (c) Nara Park

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      Source: Pergikuliner

    6. Street Food

      Unique street food and local features also make memories, which often include the type of food and how it fits into the culture of the area.

      Based on Google search results, several street food centres in the city of Bandung are Sudirman Street Day and Night Market, Cibadak Food Street, and Pasar Cisangkuy. Even though there are only a few street food centres available on the internet, finding street food in the city of Bandung is very easy. In almost all areas of schools and college campuses, offices, places of worship, and city parks, there are many street food vendors (refer to figure 15).

      Figure 15: (a) Sudirman Street Day and Night Market, (b) Cibadak Food Street, & (c) Pasar Cisangkuy

      Graphical user interface, application

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      Source: Google

    7. Other Location

      The places outside of the restaurant are also memorable, which shows that eating and drinking shouldn't just be limited to restaurants. These include places to drink for fun, like bars and pubs, as well as places where alcohol is made, like wineries and breweries. Home is another environment that comes up in travellers’ responses. It should be noted that eating at local people's homes is not a traditional part of the general tourism system.

      In the city of Bandung, there are not many factories that provide a place for buyers to taste their products directly where the products are produced, but in 2021, one of the graduates of the Master Chef Indonesia Season 6 cooking event, Arthur, founded the SOON bread factory with a unique concept, where the bakery located in Jalan Pajiping Utara Jalan Cicendo provides a comfortable place for buyers to eat the bread they buy directly at the place, so buyers can enjoy their bread while seeing how the bread is made, which gives a different sensation (refer to figure 16).

      Figure 16: SOON


      Source: Pergikuliner

  2. Companion

    Social interaction was key to recall, as respondents often mentioned who participated in the eating or drinking experience—including travel companions and local friends or relatives at the destination. Many experiences may be memorable because of the individuals who share them, and couples and romantic partners are most frequently cited when recalling memorable food experiences. Family and friends are wonderful companions. There has been no specific research that explores whether all restaurants in the city of Bandung are child- and senior-friendly for the sake of guaranteeing comfort when visiting restaurants with family members. Even so, there are several articles that recommend restaurants in Bandung that even provide a children’s play area (refer to figure 17). As quoted from an article (Traveloka, n.d.):

    One of the cafes with beautiful views and also child-friendly in Bandung is Miss Bee Providore. Built among the green trees, you will find a large courtyard right in front of the café. Uniquely, this page has been transformed in such a way as to become a children’s playground with various choices of games ranging from wooden swings, tire swings to seesaw boards. The kids can also see the adorable bunnies first hand.

    Figure 17: Kids Playground at Miss Bee Providore Restaurant

    A picture containing grass, mammal, outdoor, lagomorph

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    Source: Pergikuliner

  3. Occasion (Festival and Events)

    Festivals, cooking classes, culinary tours, and special food travel experiences are unforgettable experiences besides restaurants and bars.

    Snack festivals, as well as other food festivals, are often held in the city of Bandung, both by the city government and by private parties. Some of the food festivals that have been held in the city of Bandung in 2022 are Bandung Seuhah Volume 2 at the Bandung City Hall on September 3, 2022; the Jajan Yuk Culinary Village at Bandung Indah Plaza on November 2–6, 2022; and the Seuhah Festival at the 23rd Easter Hyper Square on December 1-4, 2022 (refer to figure 18).

    Figure 18: Bandung Seuhah Jilid 2 Culinary Festival

    A crowd of people at an outdoor event

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    Source: Inilah Bandung

  4. Touristic Elements

Beyond the physical aspects of an experience, there are many sociological or cultural aspects that relate it to memory. These elements, such as authenticity and nostalgia, which appear frequently in tourism theory, are broadly labelled "tourist elements".

Novelty, or exposure to new environments, creates many of the most memorable food and beverage experiences as tourists experience food for the first time.

Authenticity and the role of authentic and local experiences have been discussed. However, "authentic" food is not limited to local cuisine, and it doesn't have to be local to be memorable.

Nostalgia intuitively seems important because memories reflect past events. Sentimental longing or ongoing discussions about memories can be categorized as nostalgia. For some people, eating food brings back memories of the past.

Variety is key to many experiences; many unique event variations make for a memorable food or drink experience.

Surprise, because many memories result from unplanned outings or chance trips. It seems that it doesn't matter if someone is interested in seeking out culinary experiences to have an unforgettable experience.

The desire to return often results from a memorable food experience. Many tourists not only mention memories, but they also reflect on how this incident changed their behaviour. Some return to enjoy the experience again. For some, this may happen on the same trip.

Hedonism is to be expected, as the food and drink experience is hedonistic. As the pursuit of pleasure, hedonism can also be implied by the many intentional culinary experiences that individuals seek, enjoy, and remember.

Emotion and sensuality, especially the primary senses of sight, smell, and taste, are evident throughout the responses, including many of those mentioned above. This is important because food and drink are the only travel experiences that combine all of these senses.

Some of the answers also had negative parts, which shows that people can also remember bad things.

There has been no specific research that examines for certain the availability of supporting elements for culinary tourism activities in the city of Bandung, but as previously described, the existence of a variety of foods and beverages, the existence of restaurants or places to eat that have been around for a long time, various types of restaurants and places to eat, various locations and scenic settings, and various choices of places to shop for food in the city of Bandung can support the elements of novelty, nostalgia, variety, surprise, the desire to return, hedonism, and emotion and sensuality can be achieved properly.


From the discussion above, the city of Bandung has fulfilled the elements of a memorable culinary tourism experience according to Stone et al. (2017), namely food and drink, location and setting, companions, occasions, and touristic elements. All these elements can still be developed by the government of the City of Bandung and all related parties to create a culinary tourism experience that leaves a positive impression and can further increase the number of tourists to the City of Bandung (refer to table 3).

Table 3: Elements Influencing Memorable Culinary Tourism Experience

Elements Influencing Memorable Culinary Tourism Experience

Availability in Bandung




Local foods

Authentic foods

Novel foods

Unusual or bizarre foods

Variety of foods


Famous or iconic restaurant

Trendy restaurant

Local or authentic restaurant

Setting or view

Outdoor dining

Other Location

Street Food






This research may not be able to fully capture the complexity and variety of the different participants' experiences and points of view. The results of this research could be different if it was done from a different point of view or with different research methods. This is because the results are subjective and depend on how and what was studied.

Conflict of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interests.


The author is thankful to the institutional authority for completion of the work.


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