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International Journal of Emerging Issues in Social Science, Arts, and Humanities

Vol. 2 No. 2; April 2024; Page: 91-104


An Experimental Study on Using Rhymes to Build English Vocabulary Among Kindergarten Pupils in Bousher, Oman

Srija Karote Rajan1*, Uranus Saadat2

1&2Faculty of English Language and Literature, Lincoln University College, Malaysia

*Corresponding author’s mail id: sriamr@gmail.com


This study explores the impact of nursery rhymes on enhancing vocabulary skills among kindergarten students. It specifically focuses on the use of nursery rhymes to improve English vocabulary among young learners. The research involved five English teachers and sixty students aged 4.5 to 6 years from Indian School Bousher, Oman. Two groups were formed: control and experimental, with the experimental group taught English using nursery rhymes over a ten-week period, while the control group received traditional instruction. Data from pre-tests and post-tests were analyzed descriptively, supplemented by interviews with the English teachers. The independent variable was the use of nursery rhymes, and the dependent variable was vocabulary. The study found that nursery rhymes significantly enhanced vocabulary scores among kindergarten students, as evidenced by various assessments such as word-picture matching, identifying rhyming words, and solving crossword puzzles. Moreover, nursery rhymes play a pedagogically significant role in teaching English vocabulary, facilitating memorization, retention, and comprehension of words in an engaging manner. They encourage students to infer new word meanings and foster a fun learning environment, thereby boosting motivation, self-confidence, and reducing anxiety.

Keywords: Rhymes; Vocabulary; Kindergarten Students; English Language


The English language is one of the most common languages in the world. (Pawar, 2022). For economic progress, modern technology, internationalization, the internet, and the World Wide Web, English plays an indispensable role. (Haidar, 2019). The English language includes four essential skills. It includes reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills. Reading is considered the receptive understanding of language, and writing is its productive use. Researchers have been focusing on vocabulary, whose importance is on the same lines as the acquisition of grammar. It is indeed an essential component of every use of language (N. Schmitt & D. Schmitt, 2020). Education for students at a young age shouldn’t be boring. Childhood is the age of imagination and fantasy. So, education should be based on developing the imaginative skills of the child. The use of creative methods in learning, such as playing and singing, is vitally important. (Bendo & Erbas, 2019). Learning English, which for students is not their first language, is quite a challenge. As they learn nursery rhymes, it becomes easy for them to remember new words and phrases and later become more eloquent. For example, the rhyme "head, shoulders, knees, and toes" engages children in an entertaining way. Through rhyme, they learn about different parts of the body. The inclusion of actions to sing the rhyme helps them recognize the words associated with different body parts. The regular repetition of listening and recapitulation of nursery rhymes helps in memorizing.

They are also encouraged to use new words based on rhyming words for a given word. This research explores how nursery rhymes help enhance the vocabulary of young English learners. Further, the study investigates the use of nursery rhymes in English teaching, testing the young learner’s ability to match words with the correct image, fill in the blanks with the appropriate word, write words as per pictures, solve crossword puzzles with pictures as clues, communicate in English their wants and needs, and feel confident.

Problem Statement

As kindergarteners are young learners with limited experience in language learning, their vocabulary is limited. Also, students at Indian School Bousher are mostly Indian nationals from various states of India. Most students have a mother tongue influence, and a few are new to the English language too.

Early childhood is the age for the development of 50–80% of human intelligence, realization, and insight, according to Casas-Ortiz, Echeverria, & Santos (2023). Humans later-life learnings were based on the information they accomplished during their early years. Thus, for young learners who learn English as a second language, nursery rhymes play a vital role in learning English vocabulary. Nursery rhymes are presented as both a story and a poem, which is quite enjoyable for the students. (Mora & Coyle, 2023). States that the imagination of a child considerably increases over the first seven years based on storytelling. Interaction that activates all the senses is needed to form intelligence, knowledge, and wisdom. Dance and actions while reciting a nursery rhyme help with kinesthetic learning. Healthy brain development is based on the primary reflexes used in these movements. Infants’ children often perform these brain-developing motions on the floor. They continue to look at these trends as children and adults in a number of ways to keep their brains and bodies healthy.

Consequently, vocabulary acquisition among young learners by using nursery rhymes is examined in this study. (Hery & Arshad, 2020). Building vocabulary is the main focus of language. Researchers found that even though students pass the English test, their communication skills are not so remarkable based on the traditional English-language input. The employment of creative methods to teach English in pre-primary schools aims at creating an English-savvy community. It is hypothesized that the sooner one learns English, the more time they get to deal with it and improve it, which would eventually aid them in international business. English learning also assists in learning other subjects, such as mathematics, science, social studies, etc.

Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study is to examine whether the use of nursery rhymes in English teaching can substantially enhance vocabulary building by focusing specifically on matching the word with the correct image, filling in the blanks with the appropriate word, writing words as per pictures, solving crossword puzzles with pictures as clues, communicating needs and wants in English, reducing apprehension, and building confidence among young learners.

The Central Objectives of this Study are:

To establish evidence that using rhymes would contribute positively to learning and obtaining the vocabulary of the English language.

Research Questions:

  1. Are rhymes to enrich the vocabulary of kindergarten students a potent approach to be embraced?

  2. Does using rhymes help students to solve puzzles involving words and pictures, fill in blanks using correct words, and identify words for pictures?

  3. Does using rhymes help children develop an enriching vocabulary and convey their thoughts easily?

Research Hypothesis:

Seven null hypotheses (Ho) are devised based on the below criteria:

  1. The scores of the experimental group and control group in filling in the blanks with the correct word have no polarity.

  2. The experimental group and the control group solving crossword puzzles with pictures as clues have no inconsistency.

  3. The show-and-tell scores of the experimental group and control group have no variance.

Research Significance

The outcome of this research is expected to be useful both in a conceptual and hands-on way. Conceptually, it sheds light on the use of nursery rhymes to enhance vocabulary skills in language learning. In a hands-on way, it’s of great help to teachers, students, and schools. The importance of this research from a teacher’s perspective is that it would help them guide children and teach vocabulary using nursery rhymes. So, teachers could easily keep a check on their students, accomplishments and aims. From a student’s perspective, this research would help the students of Indian School Bousher learn how to build vocabulary. Moreover, this research would give students a feel-good factor as they learn in an amusing way through nursery rhymes. From a school’s perspective, the conclusions from this research are expected to benefit the school by addressing concerns and issues related to teaching vocabulary to students.

Ethical Considerations

Consent for research, using the sample set, and teacher participation in the interview are attained by obtaining permission from school authorities professionally through mail. Participant consent is obtained by asking parents to fill out a consent form.

Literature Review

Learning is a lifelong collaborative process. (Ghavifekr, 2020). The theory of socio-constructivism developed by Vygotsky in 1978 provides a classic foundation for interpreting how learning occurs during early childhood activities, such as learning and rendition of nursery rhymes. (Lefebvre, Bolduc, & Pirkenne, 2015). According to Fitria (2023), nursery rhymes bring in interest and enthusiasm among students to learn language skills. Activities, too, can be aligned based on the level of language acquisition to create an engaging classroom.

Theoretical Model of the Study

The Vygotsky Theory of Social Constructivism

As Akpan et al. (2020) stated, social constructivism is an amalgamation of different cognizable constructivism that pays attention to the collective manner of learning under the direction of a facilitator or in synergy with other students. Social constructivism opines that learning transpires in a group by interacting with others. In conformity with Vygotsky’s theory, children gain new knowledge and skills through their associations with competent peers and adults, as when they become proficient in and say aloud nursery rhymes.


Stephen D. Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition

Nursery rhymes in the English language aid in language acquisition. It serves as a vital input. It is the input that is one level higher than the level of competence that is aimed at in the input hypothesis. Nursery rhymes are also part of the learned system, which is the fruit of coaching and comprises a sensible process that results in awareness about the language.

Importance of Development of Language in Early Years

Language development is an essential part of child development. It supports children's ability to communicate. It helps them express and understand emotions. (Saputra, Pasha, & Afriska, 2020). Among children, learning to understand, use, and enjoy language is the primary step in literacy and the basis for learning to read and write. (Lindfors et al., 2019). As per A.E. (2014), language is critical to cognitive development, which refers to the measurement of intellectual or academic ability through the process of learning to think, the ability to follow instructions, process information, and the development of the brain. Early language development helps build vocabulary among children. Vocabulary is the list of words used in language. Core language is often focused on by teachers and educators at preschool in order to ease learning acquisition, promote proper pronunciation, and enhance communication skills. (Yang et al., 2021). There are various approaches to teaching vocabulary. Mostly, it includes singing songs, reciting nursery rhymes, colorful pictures, interesting games, etc.

Use of Rhymes in Education

According to Morão (Mourão2014), 3- to 6-year-old students enjoy learning the play way. So, the teaching techniques adopted by the teachers are expected to be exciting and creative. Children at this age mostly develop core vocabulary through rhymes and songs. They develop their language phonetic skills and learn proper pronunciations. This helps them develop good interpersonal skills as their communication skills improve drastically. Rhymes are often performed with actions and movements. This helps them with coordination. Children often use and move their whole bodies to enact the nursery rhyme that they learn. (Mullen, 2017). Security and safety are what children seek. Nursery rhymes provide for a safe and stable bond between parents and children. Positive physical touch, whether at home or between kids, is crucial for social development. For example, clapping rhymes is quite beneficial for children and makes them sociable.

The act of singing nursery rhymes requires cognitive processing. Children must process the sounds and words they hear, understand their meanings, and produce them with correct pronunciation. Learning nursery rhymes encourages concentration and focus. This ability to concentrate on a task is a pivotal cognitive skill that will benefit them throughout their academic journey. Rhymes act as excellent memory exercises. Repeating rhymes helps children enhance their memory skills. This skill is transferable to other areas of learning, such as memorizing facts or sequences in school subjects. Children also learn about the logical order of events, cause and effect, and the concept of time as they sing about "Jack and Jill" or "Hickory Dickory Dock." These rhymes provide a structured framework for understanding sequences and help in developing sequencing skills, which are crucial for cognitive development. Nursery rhymes mostly includes imaginative and whimsical scenarios that require children to use their problem-solving skills. For example, "Mary Had a Little Lamb" presents a situation that challenges kids to think creatively. Encouraging this kind of thinking

supports cognitive development. (Birken & Coon, 2008) state that basic mathematical concepts such as counting, comparing quantities, and understanding spatial relationships can also be learned with the help of rhymes. "One, Two, Buckle My Shoe" is a prime example. By integrating math into the fun of nursery rhymes, children gain an early appreciation for numbers and math-related skills. As per Kenney (2005), Humorous nursery rhymes often amuse children. Different emotions are showcased by the characters in a nursery rhyme. This assists children in understanding their own and other emotions and helps them show empathy and sympathy towards others. Nursery rhymes connect us to the past. For example, ’Ring a Ring of Roses’ describes the great plague in England in 1655.

Effectiveness of Nursery Rhymes in Vocabulary Building

The role of nursery rhymes in building vocabulary is phenomenal among students in their early years. Nursery rhymes are pivotal in introducing English to early-year students. As per Christina & Pujiarto (2023), words and rhythms that repeat in rhymes often follow a definite pattern. This helps children memorize words. The dance and rhyme combination helps children follow movements even if they can’t recite the rhyme properly. Usually, the recital and presentation deliver the essence of the rhyme. The rhyming words, alliteration, and repetitive patterns in these verses help children learn the fundamental building blocks of language. When kids recite rhymes, they develop an ear for sounds, syllables, and words. Many nursery rhymes feature advanced vocabulary that may not be part of a child's everyday conversations. Exposing young minds to new words and their meanings enhances their vocabulary. As they sing about "Incy wincy spiders" or "Humpty dumpty," children are also building their understanding of more complex words. Rhymes are a systematic and structured method for acquiring new vocabulary skills and correct pronunciation.

Motivation and Engagement in Learning

(Conesa & Rubio, 2015) state that rhymes are a good way to introduce the sounds of a language and practice speaking in a fun and motivational way.

Mixing music and language influences children positively as they develop concentration over a longer period, often stimulating certain parts of the brain connected to motivation. For some children, learning English is a daunting task. Knowing rhymes encourages them when they feel the progress is not so fast. Shy learners, too, start speaking by sharing rhymes as their confidence level grows. (UTÍKALOVÁ, 2012). Asserts that faint-hearted students often use rhymes to shield themselves with music and relax. Rhymes helps in developing a highly engaged classroom where everyone participates actively in the learning process.

Comparative Studies

English learning has undergone a major shift from a traditional to a modern approach. Elmayantie (2015) points out Grammar-Translation Approach as a traditional method in English learning. English grammar is taught to students, and words are translated into their native language. Communication is not practiced, and the focus on speaking is minimal. According to Mart (2013), in Audio-lingual Approach phonology, morphology, and syntax of language are taught, stating the contrast between native and target languages. As per Dos Santos (2020), the communicative approach is a modern standard approach. According to this approach, communication is both a method for learning and a goal to be achieved. As per Çelik, Cay, & Kanadli (2021), James Asher’s TPR (Total Physical Response) is a method that uses physical movement to react to verbal input given. It considerably reduces students’ discomfort and their affective filter. In the modern language classroom, usually an integration of different approaches is followed. Teachers opt for and use various approaches according to the distinct requirements of their students. Nursery rhymes are too much of a modern technique for teaching young English learners.

Cultural Considerations

Language and culture are connected and dependent on each other. Language mirrors the customs, traditions, and value systems of the people. The way we express ourselves with words, expressions, and even silent cues are all outcomes of the culture we follow. (Kuo & Lai, 2006) state that second language teachers should aim at bridging cultural gaps by focusing on diverse cultures, recognizing major cultural items, designing curriculum, and using suitable teaching approaches. Rhymes as a teaching strategy include and teach about culture. According to Harris (2010), ‘Ring-a-Ring-a-Roses’ describes the Great Plague. The roses represent deadly rashes; the posies were a preventative measure; the a-tishoos were the sneezing symptoms; and everyone falling down is death. ‘London Bridge is falling down’ deals with the many difficulties faced while trying to build the bridge over the Thames.

Pedagogical Implications

Rhymes are ready-to-use pedagogical tools. Nursery rhymes are not only important for language acquisition but also help in verbal communication. Auditory skills like differentiating between various sounds are also developed using rhymes. Children learn language in a playful way, along with powering their imagination and concentration. They also develop a shared sense of identity and community. According to Zhong & Guo (2022), rhymes can be used to introduce new concepts to children, as there’s a rhyme for almost every object, such as seasons, animals, traffic, fruit, vegetables, etc. We can use rhymes to manage children’s behaviors. For example, make children stand in a line. The teacher could sing the rhyme “I am a standing line..." Tall, straight, and fine." Most children try to stand tall and straight. Rhymes could also be sung using a few musical instruments, such as keyboards, guitars, and drums, thus helping children develop musical sense. Children also perform finger plays, skits, and concerts using rhymes.

Previous Research, Gaps Filled, and Limitations

Prosic-Santovac (2015) conducted research titled “Making the Match: Traditional Nursery Rhymes and Teaching English to Modern Children." The article focuses on developing criteria that can help teachers of young learners choose the rhymes appropriate for language teaching based on matter, demonstrations, and language. A future study can involve the teacher’s efficiency in the rendition of rhymes in class for maximum impact. (Damayanti, Yuliana, & Sudarsono, 2023). Conducted research called “The Dual-Coding Theory and Digital Media: The Effect of Nursery Rhymes on Teaching Vocabulary.” The main aim of the study was to find out the effectiveness of nursery rhymes for vocabulary teaching based on dual-coding theory with elementary students. Further efficient technology usage for teaching rhymes could be investigated.

(Hery & Arshad, 2020), in the research titled “Using Nursery Rhymes to Enhance Vocabulary Among Young English Learners in Indonesia.” scrutinized only the quantitative data. My research includes both quantitative and qualitative study. (Zhong & Guo, 2022) stated the need for practicum for teaching rhymes. But in this research, the teacher is professionally equipped with a Montessori and childhood training degree to use rhymes effectively in the classroom. In summary, I would like to highlight that nursery rhymes are indeed an effective teaching tool. Usage of nursery rhymes on a regular basis, especially for young learners, would help them enhance a lot of skills.


A mixed-methods approach is used for the research. It includes both quantitative and qualitative methods of research. Interviews with the five English teachers form the qualitative aspect of research, and experimental research forms the quantitative part of research, wherein pre-test and post-test data are collected and analyzed on 30 students each in the experimental group and control group.


The sample of the study consists of two groups: the experimental group and the control group. Two tests, namely the pre-test and the post-test, will be conducted on the control group and the experimental group. (30) pupils at kindergarten, Indian School Bousher, and (30) pupils in the same class will be subjected to the test. A simple random sampling technique is used to choose a sample size of 30 students each for both groups. The result will be analyzed. A sample of five (5) teachers will be chosen to answer questions in an interview.


The experimental method is used for the control and experimental groups. Pre-tests and post-tests are conducted on them. Data collection from five English teaching staff members at Indian School Bousher is done using interviews. The pre-test during the first week consisted of 60 questions in three sections. In part, one selects the correct word for the images (20 items). Part two: fill in the blanks with the correct word (20 items). Part three is a crossword puzzle using pictures as clues (20 items). From the second week to the ninth week, the experimental group students were taught English vocabulary using 20 nursery rhymes using a student-centered approach, while the traditional approach was used for control group students, which was teacher-centric, wherein students simply listened to the teacher and were never interactive, and nursery rhymes were not included in the lesson plan. A post-test was conducted on both groups to compare their vocabulary skills. Research lasted for ten weeks. Data was collected from the pre-test and post-test and analyzed. Data collection was done based on observations of the experiment in the control and experiment groups. The feedback from teachers during the interview also provided vital information regarding the research. The data from the experimental and control groups was analyzed using the descriptive data analysis technique. Also, content analysis of the interviews with five English teacher’s feedback is done.

Selection Criteria for Choosing Nursery Rhymes

Nursery rhymes were chosen based on the themes taught, which resonated with the developmental stage of the child and added to the educational value by enriching vocabulary. For example, shapes, seasons, parts of the body, animals, emotions, etc. Rhythmic appeal was taken into consideration, which aimed at steady and simple beats that children could easily learn. As in ‘row row your boat’, ‘itsy bitsy spider’ rhyme, etc. Interactive and movement-based rhymes were taken, which included clapping, stomping, and motor skills. For example, ‘ring around the rosie','simon says’ etc. Story- telling rhymes such as ‘jack and jill’ and ‘humpty dumpty’ were chosen for children to sequence events and comprehend well.

Cultural Relevance

Oman has a diverse heritage. The English curriculum here aims at producing well-rounded individuals who maintain Islamic principles and values. Rhymes are carefully chosen, which doesn’t hurt the sentiments of the people of Oman and is accepted by society.

Specific Teaching Strategies

First, simple and short rhymes are taught based on the theme being taught. Teaching is made fun by using actions and expressions while singing the rhyme.

Voice modulation is used as per the words in the rhyme and the emotions it invokes to attract children. Pictures are shown to help them sequence the events in the rhyme. Animated videos are also shown. Children, as they become familiar with rhyme, are encouraged to sing along. Children identify the rhyming words and are asked for more rhyming words they might be familiar with. The teacher explains it’s meaning too. The teacher also introduces a few new words, explaining their meanings to the children. Children are asked to identify realia, and a show-and-tell activity is also conducted.

Data Collection Methods

Materials used for the study include 20 nursery rhymes. Along with pre-test and post-test questions for the control and experiment groups, a semi-structured interview protocol for teachers is also used.


Group 1 is Experiment Group Group 2 is Control Group

Individual Fill in the Black Post-test Scores of 30 Students out of 20 Marks.

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Table1- Comparing Fill in the Blank Scores of Two Groups in Post-Test





Mean Difference
















Fill in the blanks scores in the pre-test for the experimental group were 6.1 and those of the control group were 5.9. Clearly, there was an insignificant difference between the scores. Table 1 compares the scores in the fill-in-the-blanks section for the post-test for two groups. Experimental group scores 11.90, while control group scores 6.80.

Group 1 is Experiment Group Group 2 is Control Group

Individual Crossword Puzzle Post-test Scores of 30 Students out of 20 Marks

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Table2- Comparing Crossword Puzzle Scores of Two Groups in Post-Test





Mean Difference
















Table 2 compares the crossword puzzle scores of both the groups. 3.9 score of control group is quite less as compared to 13.0 score of experimental groups.

Group 1 is Experiment Group Group 2 is Control Group

Individual Show and Tell Post-Test Scores of 30 Students Out of 20 Marks

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Table 3- Comparing Show and Tell Scores of Two Groups in Post-Test





Mean Difference
















Table 3 compares the show and tell scores of both the groups. With 15.83 experimental group scores are notably higher than 5.43 of control group.


Hypothesis 1 states there is no polarity in the scores between the experimental group and the control group in filling in the blanks with the correct word. As per Table 1, there is clearly a major difference between the scores of the two groups, and hence, Hypothesis 1 is nullified. The teacher in the experimental group recaps the images used in the nursery rhymes and links them to corresponding words. Students learn to read and spell the object along with identifying the image. They are clearly able to find the missing words. For example, in the nursery rhyme “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star,” children learn that twinkles are stars and that stars are seen at night.

Hypothesis 2 states that there is no inconsistency between the scores of experimental group and the control group solving crossword puzzle with pictures as clue. Clearly. It is nullified.For example- in the nursey rhyme “Insy Winsy Spider” they learn that spiders climb, how rain makes us wet, Sun dries us up. As children learn rhymes, they build vocabulary. Hence, there analytical mind sharpens and they develop critical thinking which helps then to solve crossword puzzles.

Students of experimental group had picked up vocabulary from learning rhymes and were able to speak few sentences about the pictures shown to them more confidently and with more awareness than the control group. For example- in the nursey rhyme “Baa Baa Black Sheep” they learn about sheep. How sheep gives us wool. Five teachers of Indian School Bousher were interviewed based on their experiences who interacted with students of both the groups. Teachers found the students of experimental group more interactive and expressive about their wants and needs, they clearly had a

confident personality as they seemed to answer questions put forth by teachers based on their learning of nursery rhymes.

Hypothesis 3 is clearly nullified as it states that there is no divergence between the experimental group and the control group in show and tell activity and communicating needs/wants. Content analysis of the interview of 5 English Teachers provides this information.

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Implications of the Study

The study helps us understand the potency of nursery rhymes to build vocabulary among kindergarten students. Children learn fun and play. By reciting nursery rhymes, they learn new words, become fluent with words, and modify their voices. It’s an effective teaching tool that's ready to use. It helps children learn concepts from other subjects and helps in the overall personality development of children, as their confidence level is uplifted by it. It should be diligently included, and sufficient time should be provided in the curriculum for its rendition. The study illustrates how children who were non-native English speakers and had mother-tongue influences were in the silent period of language acquisition. They enjoyed taking part in class activities through gestures. They used words from the rhyme and used them correctly in another context. They participate in class activities and slowly develop the confidence to converse in English. Nursery rhymes also give children a meaningful narrative, which is important for a child who is learning an additional language.

Long-term Effects

The study would benefit from an evaluation of the long-term retention of vocabulary learned through nursery rhymes. A follow-up study to assess retention over a longer period would be valuable.

The limitations of the study include the fact that it is limited to English teachers and students in kindergarten at Indian School Bousher for a duration of ten weeks. It also includes the use of only 20 nursery rhymes. A larger population for study can also be used in future studies.

Suggestions for Future Research

Future researchers can take up this topic and further analyze what types of rhymes are best suited for young learners, as with the advent of technology, there is an ocean of nursery rhymes available over the internet. They can also focus on whether rhymes would help higher sections in learning the English language. Researchers can focus on how nursery rhymes help develop reading and writing skills. Research can also be carried out on a larger population to prove its relevance.

Educational and Pedagogical Consideration

Findings from my research would help educationalists and policymakers dedicate more time and effectively build activities around nursery rhymes to make learning fun. Clay modeling of objects in rhymes, impromptu drawing and coloring of characters in the rhymes, and building a random story around the characters or scene in the rhymes can help children develop many more skills, boosting their confidence levels. Nursery rhymes are often taken casually, and sometimes, due to time constraints, they are not used effectively. My findings would help nursey rhymes get their due weight in early education set up in terms of implementation in real time.


This research has noteworthy connotations for imparting English education to kindergarteners using nursery rhymes. They come to school with limited vocabulary and mother tongue influences. Children through rhymes not only learn to sing a song but also build on new vocabulary, spellings, and pronunciations, which help them to find the missing links, solve crossword puzzles, and become more confident orally as they describe objects or items they learn through rhymes. This research reinstates the value of nursery rhymes in the life of a kindergarten learner for acquiring language skills. Choosing the appropriate rhyme, training teachers for rendition of the rhyme, and aligning activities around the rhyme will all help schools use nursery rhymes as effective teaching for vocabulary and language development.


Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate: Consent for research, using the sample set, and teacher participation in the interview are attained by obtaining permission from school authorities professionally through mail. Participant consent is obtained by asking parents to fill out a consent form.

Conflict of Interest: Not applicable.

Acknowledgement: We sincerely appreciate the participation and cooperation of our research participants, as well as the ethical approval provided by the University.


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