EVALUATION OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND PHOSPHATE INTAKE AMONG THE HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS WITH HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA IN PENANG, MALAYSIA
Objective: High serum phosphate level and malnutrition are among the key factors that elevate the risk of mortality among hemodialysis patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the total dietary protein and phosphate intake by hemodialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia in Penang state, Malaysia. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted between September to November 2015 which involved hemodialysis patients from eight dialysis centers in Penang. The inclusion criteria were hemodialysis patients aged more than 18 years old with serum phosphate more than 1.8 mmol/L. Patients’ two days’ unscheduled diet recall that included one weekday and one weekend diet intake were recorded. Results: A total of 117 eligible hemodialysis patients were approached and 98 patients agreed to participate in this study. The mean age of the patients was 52.6±14.1 years. The patients’ mean serum phosphate and albumin level were 2.18±0.24 mmol/L and 38.28±3.94 g/L respectively. The mean total dietary calorie intake was 1411.2±248.3 kcal/day. Whereas, the mean dietary protein intake was 43.7±7.6 g/day and phosphate intake were 940.2±150.8 mg/day. Conclusion: The dietary calories and protein intake for the hemodialysis patients were relatively low, indicating that the patients were at risk of malnutrition and mortality. The patients’ dietary phosphate intake was within the recommended range, but the target serum phosphate level was not achieved.